Wednesday, 25 November 2015

Opening Science



  1. Preface

    Sönke Bartling &
    Sascha Friesike

Basics & Background

  1. Towards Another Scientific Revolution

    Sönke Bartling &
    Sascha Friesike

    In this introductory chapter we establish a common
    understanding of what are and what drives current changes in research
    and science. The concepts of Science 2.0 and Open Science will be
    introduced. As such we provide a short introduction to the history of
    science and knowledge dissemination. We explain the origins of our
    scientific culture which evolved around publication methods.
    Interdependencies of current concepts will be elucidated and it will be
    stated that the transition towards Open Science is a complex cultural
    change. Reasons as to why the change is slow are discussed and the main
    obstacles are identified. Next, we explain the recent changes in
    scientific workflows and how these cause changes in the system as a
    whole. Furthermore, we provide an overview on the entire book and
    explain what can be found in each chapter.

  2. Open Science: One Term, Five Schools of Thought

    Benedikt Fecher &
    Sascha Friesike

    Open Science is an umbrella term encompassing a
    multitude of assumptions about the future of knowledge creation and
    dissemination. Based on a literature review, this chapter aims at
    structuring the overall discourse by proposing five Open Science schools
    of thought: The infrastructure school (which is concerned with the technological architecture), the public school
    (which is concerned with the accessibility of knowledge creation), the
    “measurement school”(which is concerned with alternative impact
    measurement), the “democratic school”(which is concerned with access to
    knowledge) and the “pragmatic school” (which is concerned with
    collaborative research).

  3. Excellence by Nonsense: The Competition for Publications in Modern Science

    Mathias Binswanger

    In this chapter, Binswanger (a critic of the current
    scientific process) explains how artificially staged competitions affect
    science and how they result in nonsense. An economist himself,
    Binswanger provides examples from his field and shows how impact factors
    and publication pressure reduce the quality of scientific publications.
    Some might know his work and arguments from his book “Sinnlose

  4. Science Caught Flat-footed: How Academia Struggles with Open Science Communication

    Alexander Gerber

    As high as the potential of Web 2.0 might be, the
    European academia, compared to that of the US, mostly reacts hesitantly
    at best to these new opportunities. Interestingly enough this scepticism
    applies even more to science communication than to scientific practice
    itself. The author shows that the supposed technological challenge is
    actually a cultural one. Thus possible solutions do not primarily lie in
    the tools or in the strategies used to apply them, but in the
    adaptation of the systemic frameworks of knowledge-creation and
    dissemination as we have practised them for decades, if not centuries.
    Permeating an ‘Open Science Communication’ (OSC) under closed paradigms
    can only succeed if foremost the embedding frameworks are adapted. This
    will include new forms of impact measurement, recognition, and
    qualification, and not only obvious solutions from the archaic toolbox
    of enlightenment and dissemination. The author also illustrates the
    causes, effects, and solutions for this cultural change with empirical

  5. Open Science and the Three Cultures: Expanding Open Science to All Domains of Knowledge Creation

    Michelle Sidler

    The Open Science movement has been most successful in
    transforming disciplines traditionally associated with science. Social
    science and humanities disciplines, especially those in the United
    States, are less well represented. To include all domains of knowledge,
    the Open Science movement must bridge these ‘three cultures’ through
    projects that highlight multiple lines of inquiry, research methods, and
    publishing practices. The movement should also consider changing its
    moniker to Open Knowledge in order to include academic disciplines that
    do not self-identify as science.


  1. (Micro)blogging Science? Notes on Potentials and Constraints of New Forms of Scholarly Communication

    Cornelius Puschmann

    Academic publishing, as a practice and as a business,
    is undergoing the most significant changes in its 350-year history.
    Electronic journals and books, both open access and behind digital pay
    walls, are increasingly replacing printed publications. In addition to
    formal channels of scholarly communication, a wide array of semi-formal
    and informal channels such as email, mailing lists, blogs, microblogs,
    and social networking sites (SNS) are widely used by scientists to
    discuss their research (Borgman 2007, p. 47; Nentwich & König 2012,
    p. 50). Scholarly blogs and services such as Twitter and Facebook are
    increasingly attracting attention as new channels of science
    communication (see Bonetta 2007; Kjellberg 2010; Herwig et al. 2009).
    Radically different conceptualizations of scholarly (micro)blogging
    exist, with some users regarding them as a forum to educate the public,
    while others see them as a possible replacement for traditional
    publishing. This chapter will provide examples of blogs and microblogs
    as tools for scientific communication for different stakeholders, as
    well as discussing their implications for digital scholarship.

  2. Academia Goes Facebook? The Potential of Social Network Sites in the Scholarly Realm

    Michael Nentwich &
    René König

    Social network sites (SNS) have not only become a
    fundamental part of the Web, but also increasingly offer novel
    communicative and networking possibilities for academia. Following a
    short presentation of the typical functions of (science-specific) SNS,
    we firstly present the state of knowledge regarding academic usage
    practices, both in general purpose SNS and in science-specific SNS.
    Secondly, we assess potential impacts by addressing identified key
    issues such as privacy, the role of pseudonymity, and the specific form
    of informal communication in question. In particular, we focus on the
    issue of network effects and the challenge of multiple channels, which
    presents itself as a major hurdle for an effective implementation of SNS
    in academia. Despite hese difficulties, we come to the conclusion that
    SNS are, in principle, functional for scholarly communication and that
    they have serious potential within academia.

  3. Reference Management

    Martin Fenner,
    Kaja Scheliga &
    Sönke Bartling

    Citations of relevant works are an integral part of all
    scholarly papers. Collecting, reading, and integrating these references
    into a manuscript is a time-consuming process, and reference managers
    have facilitated this process for more than 25 years. In the past 5
    years, we have seen the arrival of a large number of new tools with
    greatly expanded functionality. Most of the newer reference managers
    focus on the collaborative aspects of collecting references and writing
    manuscripts. A number of these newer tools are web-based in order to
    facilitate this collaboration, and some of them are also available for
    mobile devices. Many reference managers now have integrated PDF viewers
    (sometimes with annotation tools) for scholarly papers. Reference
    managers increasingly have to handle other forms of scholarly content,
    from presentation slides to blog posts and web links. Open source
    software and open standards play a growing role in reference management.
    This chapter gives an overview of important trends in reference
    management and describes the most popular tools.

  4. Open Access: A State of the Art

    Dagmar Sitek &
    Roland Bertelmann

    Free access to knowledge is a central module within the
    context of Science 2.0. Rapid development within the area of Open
    Access underlines this fact and is a pathfinder for Science 2.0,
    especially since the October 2003 enactment of the “Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities”.

  5. Novel Scholarly Journal Concepts

    Peter Binfield

    Recent years have seen a great deal of experimentation
    around the basic concept of the journal. This chapter overviews some of
    the more novel or interesting developments in this space, developments
    which include new business models; new editorial models, and new ways in
    which the traditional functions of the journal can be disaggregated
    into separate services.

  6. The Public Knowledge Project: Open Source Tools for Open Access to Scholarly Communication

    James MacGregor,
    Kevin Stranack &
    John Willinsky

    This chapter describes how the Public Knowledge
    Project, a collective of academics, librarians, and technical genies,
    has been, since 1998, building open source software (free) publishing
    platforms that create an alternative path to commercial and
    subscription-based routes to scholarly communication. It sets out how
    its various website platforms, including Open Journal Systems, Open
    Conference Systems, and, recently, Open Monograph Press, provide a
    guided path through the editorial workflow of submission, review,
    editing, publishing and indexing. Thousands of faculty members around
    the world are now using the software to publish independent journals on a
    peer-reviewed and open access basis, greatly increasing the public and
    global contribution of research and scholarship.


  1. Altmetrics and Other Novel Measures for Scientific Impact

    Martin Fenner

    Impact assessment is one of the major drivers in
    scholarly communication, in particular since the number of available
    faculty positions and grants has far exceeded the number of
    applications. Peer review still plays a critical role in evaluating
    science, but citation-based bibliometric indicators are becoming
    increasingly important. This chapter looks at a novel set of indicators
    that can complement both citation analysis and peer review. Altmetrics
    use indicators gathered in the real-time Social Web to provide immediate
    feedback about scholarly works. We describe the most important
    altmetrics and provide a critical assessment of their value and

  2. Dynamic Publication Formats and Collaborative Authoring

    Lambert Heller,
    Ronald The &
    Sönke Bartling

    While Online Publishing has replaced most traditional
    printed journals in less than twenty years, today’s Online Publication
    Formats are still closely bound to the medium of paper. Collaboration is
    mostly hidden from the readership, and ‘final’ versions of papers are
    stored in ‘publisher PDF’ files mimicking print. Meanwhile new media
    formats originating from the web itself bring us new modes of
    transparent collaboration, feedback, continued refinement, and
    reusability of (scholarly) works: Wikis, Blogs and Code Repositories, to
    name a few. This chapter characterizes the potentials of Dynamic
    Publication Formats and analyzes necessary prerequisites. Selected tools
    specific to the aims, stages, and functions of Scholarly Publishing are
    presented. Furthermore, this chapter points out early examples of usage
    and further development from the field. In doing so, Dynamic
    Publication Formats are described as a) a ‘parallel universe’ based on
    the commodification of (scholarly) media, and b) as a much needed
    complement, slowly recognized and incrementally integrated into more
    efficient and dynamic workflows of production, improvement, and
    dissemination of scholarly knowledge in general.

  3. Open Research Data: From Vision to Practice

    Heinz Pampel &
    Suenje Dallmeier-Tiessen

    “To make progress in science, we need to be open and
    share.” This quote from Neelie Kroes (2012), vice president of the
    European Commission describes the growing public demand for an Open
    Science. Part of Open Science is, next to Open Access to peer-reviewed
    publications, the Open Access to research data, the basis of scholarly
    knowledge. The opportunities and challenges of Data Sharing are
    discussed widely in the scholarly sector. The cultures of Data Sharing
    differ within the scholarly disciplines. Well advanced are for example
    disciplines like biomedicine and earth sciences. Today, more and more
    funding agencies require a proper Research Data Management and the
    possibility of data re-use. Many researchers often see the potential of
    Data Sharing, but they act cautiously. This situation shows a clear
    ambivalence between the demand for Data Sharing and the current practice
    of Data Sharing. Starting from a baseline study on current discussions,
    practices and developments the article describe the challenges of Open
    Research Data. The authors briefly discuss the barriers and drivers to
    Data Sharing. Furthermore, the article analyses strategies and
    approaches to promote and implement Data Sharing. This comprises an
    analysis of the current landscape of data repositories, enhanced
    publications and data papers. In this context the authors also shed
    light on incentive mechanisms, data citation practises and the
    interaction between data repositories and journals. In the conclusions
    the authors outline requirements of a future Data Sharing culture.

  4. Intellectual Property and Computational Science

    Victoria Stodden

    This chapters outlines some of the principles ways
    United States Intellectual Property Law affects the sharing of digital
    scholarly objects, particularly for those who wish to practice
    reproducible computational science or open science. The sharing of the
    research manuscript, and the data and code that are associated with the
    manuscript, can be subject to copyright and software is potentially
    subject to patenting. Both of these aspects of Intellectual Property
    must be confronted by researchers and this is discussed for each of the
    three digital scholarly objects: the research article; the data; and the
    code. Recommendations are made to maximize the downstream reuse utility
    of each of these objects. Finally, this chapter proposes new structures
    to manage Intellectual Property rights related to scientific research
    going forward.

  5. Research Funding in Open Science

    Jörg Eisfeld-Reschke,
    Ulrich Herb &
    Karsten Wenzlaff

    The advent of the Open Science paradigm has led to new
    interdependencies between the funding of research and the practice of
    Open Science. On the one hand, traditional revenue models in Science
    Publishing are questioned by Open Science Methods and new revenue models
    in and around Open Science need to be established. This only works if
    researchers make large parts of their data and results available under
    Open Access principles. If research funding wants to have an impact
    within this new paradigm, it requires scientists and scientific projects
    to make more than just text publications available according to the
    Open Access principles. On the other hand, it is still to be discussed
    how Research Funding itself could be more open. Is it possible to
    generate a new understanding of financing science shaped by
    transparency, interaction, participation, and stakeholder governance—in
    other words reach the next level as Research Funding 2.0? This article
    focuses on both of the aspects: Firstly, how Research Funding is
    promoting Open Science. Secondly, how an innovative and open Research
    Funding might look like.

  6. Open Innovation and Crowdsourcing in the Sciences

    Thomas Schildhauer &
    Hilger Voss

    The advent of open innovation has intensified
    communication and interaction between scientists and corporations.
    Crowdsourcing added to this trend. Nowadays research questions can be
    raised and answered from virtually anywhere on the globe. This chapter
    provides an overview of the advancements in open innovation and the
    phenomenon of crowdsourcing as its main tool for accelerating the
    solution-finding process for a given (not only scientific) problem by
    incorporating external knowledge, and specifically by including
    scientists and researchers in the formerly closed but now open systems
    of innovation processes. We present perspectives on two routes to open
    innovation and crowdsourcing: either asking for help to find a solution
    to a scientific question or contributing not only scientific knowledge
    but also other ideas towards the solution-finding process. Besides
    explaining forms and platforms for crowdsourcing in the sciences we also
    point out inherent risks and provide a future outlook for this aspect
    of (scientific) collaboration.

  7. The Social Factor of Open Science

    Tobias Fries

    Increasing visibility in the internet is a key success
    factor for all stakeholders in the online world. Sky rocketing online
    marketing spending of companies as well as increasing personal resources
    in systematic “self-marketing” of private people are a consequence of
    this. Similar holds true for the science and knowledge creation world -
    here, visibility is also a key success factor and we are currently
    witnessing the systematic exploitation of online marketing channels by
    scientists and research insitutes. A theorectical base for this novel
    interest in science marketing is herein provided by transfering concepts
    from the non-science online marketing world to the special situation of
    science marketing. The article gives hints towards most promising,
    practical approaches. The theorectical base is derived from
    considerations in the field of scale-free networks in which quality is
    not necessarily a predominant success factor, but the connectivity.

Cases, Recipes & Howtos

  1. Creative Commons Licences

    Sascha Friesike

  2. Unique Identifiers for Researchers

    Martin Fenner &
    Laure Haak

  3. Challenges of Open Data in Medical Research

    Ralf Floca

    The success of modern, evidence based and personalized
    medical research is highly dependent on the availability of a sufficient
    data basis in terms of quantity and quality. This often also implies
    topics like exchange and consolidation of data. In the area of conflict
    between data privacy, institutional structures and research interests,
    several technical, organizational and legal challenges emerge. Coping
    with these challenges is one of the main tasks of information management
    in medical research. Using the example of cancer research, this case
    study points out the marginal conditions, requirements and peculiarities
    of handling research data in the context of medical research.

  4. How this book was created using collaborative authoring and cloud tools

    Sönke Bartling

    This book about novel publishing and collaboration
    methods of scholarly knowledge was itself created using novel and
    collaborative authoring tools. Google Docs as a collaborative authoring
    and text editing tool and Dropbox as a cloud storage solution were used.
    Our experience was a positive one and we think that it saved us a lot
    of organisational emails and hundreds of work hours. Here we describe
    the workflow process in detail so that the interested author might
    benefit from what we learnt.

  5. History II.o

    Luka Orešković

  6. Making data citeable: DataCite

    Jan Brase

    In 2005 the German National Library of Science and
    Technology started assigning DOI names to datasets to allow stabile
    linking between articles and data. In 2009 this work lead to the funding
    of DataCite, a global consortium of libraries and information
    institutions with the aim to enable scientists to use datasets as
    independently published records that can be shared, referenced and

Opening Science

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