Wednesday, 25 January 2023

ChatGPT and the Future of University Assessment


ChatGPT and the Future of University Assessment

An image of a robot holding a book and teaching, surrounded by other robots and people
Image generated by DALL-E 2

ChatGPT-3 is a state-of-the-art language model developed by OpenAI. It is based on the GPT-3 (Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3) architecture and has been trained on a massive amount of text data. It has the ability to generate human-like text, answer questions, and complete various language-based tasks. It can also perform well on a wide range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as text summarisation, translation, and text-to-speech. Additionally, it has the ability to generate text based on given prompt, which is unique for its large size and capability. It is considered as one of the most advanced language model available and it continues to be updated and improved.

(Generated by ChatGPT-3)

ChatGPT-3 became freely available on 30 November 2022.

In the short space of time that has passed academia has been ‘stunned’ by the technology’s essay-writing skills and usability (Herne 2022), escalating concerns that students can now easily produce AI-assisted written work with minimal effort, dumbing down the value of their university degree. In the past few weeks alone a plethora of articles and guides have emerged to advise how we can approach this new challenge to academic integrity and quality, some of them written by ChatGPT-3 itself, just to prove the point.

But let’s not forget that we have a history here, machines have traditionally been troublesome for Universities. In the early 1930s student unions were debating that the lecturer was at risk of being replaced by the gramophone (Lindsay 2017); in the 1990s the growth of ‘distance’ learning was poised to cause the eventual dissolution of the university and the profession of the university lecturer (Eamon 1999), which was somewhat mirrored 30 years later during the online pivot of Covid19. Let’s not forget that lecture capture has been deemed a technology that would drive students out of lecture halls and replace faculty with recorded online provision (Fagan 2021).

The difference we have with ChatGPT is that it doesn’t so much present a threat to the university experience, but rather directly into the heart of the purpose of a university education – its ability to ‘teach you how to think’. There have been shadows of this in the past, for instance the hostility towards Wikipedia (Coomer 2013), the emergence of essay mills, not to mention simple, now common place tools such as spell checkers and calculators. I remember vividly a very angry professor in the early 2000s telling me that reading lists with hyperlinks would make students baby birds, with wide open mouths expecting to be spoon fed. We’ve pretty much moved through all those advancements in technology and realised their benefits, but this one, I would argue, is different. Not because it does not have its benefits, but because of the sheer volume and scale of what’s coming will be meaningfully different and ultimately challenge the foundations upon which we measure that ability to think – university assessment.

So what does ChatGPT mean for University assessment? Let’s look at four scenarios.

1. Ban it

Whilst this is a rather a futile exercise, it is an option that we have already seen some schools take (Yang 2023), and it’s likely we’ll see more go down this path. Blocking a tool from a network or device is something most students can get around by simply logging into other networks, using other devices. Could we develop detection software like Turnitin, that is trained to identify AI language algorithms? GPT-2 Output Detector Demo has made a start here, identifying patterns of irregularities in written work that might indicate chat bot assistance. Turnitin have announced that they will build AI detection into their products. But GPT is only going to advance, every time we prompt the free ChatGPT-3 we train it and hurtle towards ChatGPT-4 which according to OpenAPI will be 100x more powerful. At this rate we may well become human-batteries fuelling the machines through constantly feeding them information and data, becoming trapped within an AI generated writing matrix! This detection race is one we will not win. Hard exiting out of this cycle requires a different approach.

Seriously though, plagiarism and cheating is not new, and is already a significant activity across Universities. The QAA recently estimated that one in seven (14%) graduates may have paid someone to undertake their assignment (QAA 2020). A recent bit of polling also indicated that 16% of students had cheated in their online exams in 2022, and 52% surveyed knew someone who had cheated in their academic assessment that year. A very small percentage, only 5%, had been caught. AI technology has the ability to make this practice easier and more accessible, but banning it is simply trying to implement an analogue solution to digital problem. And it’s questionable whether it is the technology or our approach to assessment that is problematic.

2. Return to exams

This is an extreme scenario, but again one I am expecting to see, especially where there may be less appetite or resource to advance pedagogically and approach assessment in different ways. Of course exams still exist in many institutions, but increasingly it is recognised that requiring students to be placed in highly pressurised inflexible environments lacks a degree of inclusivity and manifests all kinds of attainment gaps. A return to pen and paper exams feels like a real step back but it is one some universities are willing to take to thwart the machine (Cassidy 2023). Sitting online exams under controlled conditions, with lock-down browser technology and the ability to detect whether students are pasting large chunks of text into their authoring interface is another option. But online proctoring software comes with financial and operational challenges, not to mention ethical considerations and known opportunities for academic dishonesty.

There may be something said though for encouraging more synchronous writing exercises. Johann N. Neem, talking to Inside Higher Ed, says that faculty could find ‘new ways to help students learn to read and write well and to help them make the connection between doing so and their own growth’ (D’Agostino 2023). An example would be offering opportunities for students to write in class and learn to approach writing as a practice of learning as well as a demonstration of it.

3. Develop AI Literacies as part of Student Assessment

This is undoubtably a good step. Over the past few weeks a range of ideas for engaging, authentic and creative assignments have been shared by the higher education community on how ChatGPT can be incorporated into student assessment and develop critical AI literacies. These range from essay reflection and improvement exercises, to prompt competitions and fact checking. A growing body of guides are emerging – I particularly like ‘Update Your Course Syllabus for chatGPT‘ from Ryan Watkins, which includes 10 AI-ready assignment ideas.

AI is not going away, it is technology that we are all going to be (and already are) engaging with. Developing AI literacies to enable students to use the technology responsibly and critically, is part of preparing them for the world of work. I’m not on board with a recent statement by JISC that ‘We should really regard them as simply the next step up from spelling or grammar checkers: technology that can make everyone’s life easier’ (Weale 2023). We have to help students to understand where AI writing tools can support them, where it can enable a better outcome, and what its limitations are. Unlike a spell-checker, there is a lot more room for error – after all ChatGPT-3 does not provide you with an answer to your prompt, it provides you with an output. That is a different thing altogether.

It’s also worth noting that AI literacy is a space where we should be mindful of looming social inequalities and environmental challenges. Improved future releases of GPT are not planned to be free to access, whilst the carbon footprint of training just a single AI model is significant. As institutions usually committed at some level to social justice, Universities need to look at where they stand on these matters and support students in navigating them.

4. Assess ‘Humanness’

Like we can not ban AI tools, we can not use them for all assignments. Currently tools such as ChatGPT-3 can not do a number of things that are generally expected from a university student – it can not consult, critique and cite third party sources, it can not refer to recent real world events or published material, it can’t demonstrate higher-level thinking, argue or have original ideas. The more detail and facts you ask for, the more it falters. Today, one of the best ways for students to prove that they are not a predictive language model is to demonstrate sophisticated thinking, which after all is the purpose of a university education. And we have to ask, if a machine can tell us what we need to know, what is the point in learning it? We need to shift contexts of what students need to know and how they need to learn.

Approaching assessment with the question ‘what are the cognitive tasks students need to perform without AI assistance?’ is a good start. It is possible that the rapid evolution of ChatGPT can positively increase adoption of assessment techniques that measure learners on critical thinking, problem-solving and reasoning skills rather than essay-writing abilities. Increased use of oral and video assessment, reflective assignments that ask students to explain their thinking process, developing concept diagrams, mind maps, engaging in ideation and group projects are other examples of assessment techniques. This is something many Higher Education learning professionals have been promoting for some time in a bid to better connect University education with workplace skills, offering more authentic experiences. Professional bodies would do well to look at what value their End Point Assessments hold in an AI landscape and work with Universities to explore alternative methods.

5. Using ChatGPT to support assessment processes

Much that has come out of the sector on ChatGPT and assessment has very much focused on student learning and risks of plagiarism or cheating. However, on the faculty side there are opportunities to review how this technology can support the assessment burden that many institutions face. The more sophisticated we make assessment in response to AI, the more difficult it will be for AI technology to support tasks such as marking. However, whilst assessment rubric contains generic criteria around structure, referencing and content topics then there is scope to train AI to support the grading of these elements. Multiple formative opportunities could be put in place to raise the bar on these elements, and ultimately reduce the load of markers who can then focus on feeding back on students’ demonstration of cognitive skills.

Another possible time saver would be Multiple-Choice Question production. Back in 2018 Donald Clark wrote on the potential for AI to reduce the burden of MCQs which are time consuming and difficult to author and quite often lack the quality and the quantity needed to make them as robust as they could be. Not only can AI help to generate question banks, but it can enable more forms of open input questions as the technology makes possible the interpretation of answers such as typed words, numbers of short answers. Moving forwards the possibilities for ChatGPT to generate customised questions for individual students based on their prior knowledge and proficiency, or to support students in designing their own assignments, could lead to attainable personalisation of curriculum (Barber et al 2021).

In just a few months ChatGPT-3 has laser-focused Higher Education on reviewing the essay as a form of assessment, on the practice of writing, how that will change and why. But we are already moving on. AI is also in the space of media production, not only can it produce art, videos and audio it can adopt voices and faces – our chat bot is evolving beyond written words. It would be naive to think we can stand still. This is a technology that is already two steps ahead of our attempts to contain it in some form of meaningful, solid assessment strategy. In writing this piece I have avoided the possible option that we ‘do nothing’ in response to ChatGPT-3. Considering how slow Universities can be to implement change this is a possibility, but it is not a viable or sustainable choice. Unless we confront the implications of AI for teaching and learning, and embrace it as a part of our policies and pedagogies to develop critical thinking in an AI world, then we really will start to the lose the value of a University education.


Barber, M., Bird, L., Fleming, J., Titterington-Giles, E., Edwards, E., and Leyland, C. (2021). “Gravity assist: Propelling higher education towards a brighter future”Office for students. Available online at:

Cassidy, C (2023) ‘Australian universities to return to ‘pen and paper’ exams after students caught using AI to write essays’ The Guardian, 10 Jan 2023. Available online:

Clark, D (2018) Learning Designers will have to adapt or die. Here’s 10 ways they need to adapt to AI…. [Blog] Donald Clark Plan B. Available online

Coomer, A (2013) Should university students use Wikipedia? The Guardian, 13 May 2013. Available online:

D’Agostino, S (2023) ChatGPT Advice Academics Can Use Now. Inside HigherEd, 13 Jan 2023. Available online:

Eamon, D.B. (1999) Distance education: Has technology become a threat to the academy?. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 31, 197–207. Available online:

Fagan, J (2021) University of Exeter Lecturers Threaten Industrial Action over Lecture Recordings. Available online:

Heikkil√§, M (2022) ‘We’re getting a better idea of AI’s true carbon footprint. MIT Technology Review’, 14 Nov 2022. Available online:

Hern, A. (2022) ‘AI bot ChatGPT stuns academics with essay-writing skills and usability’ The Guardian, 4 Dec 2022.

QAA.(2020). “Contracting to Cheat in Higher Education –How to Address Contract Cheating, the Use of Third-Party Services and Essay Mills.” UK:Quality Assurance Agency (QAA)

Watkins, R (2023) Update Your Course Syllabus for chatGPT [Blog] Ryan Watkins. Available online:

Weale, S (2023) ‘Lecturers urged to review assessments in UK amid concerns over new AI tool’ The Guardian, 13 Jan 2023.

Yang, M (2023) ‘New York City schools ban AI chatbot that writes essays and answers prompts’ The Guardian, 6 Jan 2023. Available online:

Research Visibility and its impact on University Rankings


Research Visibility and its impact on University Rankings By Nader Ale E... via @YouTube

Link to the presentation file

#researchtools  #researchimpact #researchvisibility #openaccess

How to Improve Research in Your University in 2023


How to Improve Research in Your University in 2023

How to Improve Research in Your University

When evaluating how to improve research in your university, you're thinking about what your university is contributing to the world. Innovation coming out of higher education may not only affect the academic world, but society as a whole. With each year that passes, more and more innovative research stems from universities. Meanwhile, there are always ways to advance the knowledge of the students studying at your institution. Working hard to improve research in your university will surely have positive consequences all around, for both the students and the institution.

This article explains what the concept of research entails in a university setting and why research output is important in higher education. It also contains some tips for improving research quality in your school, including the benefits of university partnerships.

Note: If you want us to help you with your applications, interviews and/or standardized tests, book a free strategy call. If you are a university, business, or student organization representative and want to partner with us, visit our partnerships page.


Listen to the blog!

What Is Research in a University Setting?

Research is the other main component of higher education besides teaching and the courses a student will register for every semester. This may seem like a rather obvious explanation, but research is often forgotten about in comparison to the prevalence of courses. However, it is just as important in terms of how a university will invest its resources. Research aids in fulfilling a school’s purpose, which is to educate and train the next generation. A research university will further perpetuate this cycle with top-quality professors and students on its campus. Due to their excellent resources, universities facilitate research that may not be possible elsewhere. They are constantly on the verge of cutting-edge technology and information. Student success in higher education depends on colleges and universities to give them the skills needed to prepare them for fulfilling careers. Improving research could allow for a significant uptick in attention to your school, making it one of the best college growth strategies. Part of achieving that goal is giving students the freedom to research and learn in the best spaces possible. The research coming out of universities is extremely innovative because schools have the tools to make these discoveries and the outreach to publicize them.

The level of research in a post-secondary setting depends on the discipline. STEM fields likely need the most attention in this regard, as they have applied research that often requires special equipment or infrastructure. Humanities programs can provide scholarships to pursue their research needs, such as publications in scholarly journals or academic books. Fine arts usually fund projects and other creative activities or exhibitions. Art studios are also an example of physical spaces necessary for research to be completed. All these disciplines can affect a school’s status as a research university.

When your institution is known as a research university, you are on another playing field entirely. A school’s ranking is greatly affected by its research output and improving research facilities may be a great tactic for school officials learning how to improve university performance. You will attract high-quality applicants and faculty as a result, with more eyes on your university than ever.

Why Research Is Important to Universities

A large part of why research is important to a university is that it allows for schools to better fulfill their promise to students. When a school has top-of-the-line research facilities, their quality of education rises, and they are better able to support students.

Research opportunities unfortunately do not come from thin air. In addition to the tuition from student fees, universities often use funding from the government to help make their research happen. Why? If the schools in their country are responsible for world-changing research, the government is then responsible for it. In the case of scientific discovery, for instance, making research available to other countries is a governmental issue, rather than just a scholarly one. Research often has wider implications outside of the university walls, and that is the catalyst for receiving grants from government departments.

Facilities related to science and technology are likely also the most expensive to curate in a university, as they need the correct equipment and room to immerse the student in their research. How important is research for medical school? Some universities have entire clinics with patients, where students can gain professional experience. Offering clinical research opportunities for premedical students will be an attraction for high-quality candidates. As a result, these programs are also more likely to receive government grants.

When it comes to student research, there must be students enrolled in the university to have access to these opportunities. A school with the highest quality research will be very appealing to prospective students looking for schools to apply to. Promoting your research output and facilities is one of the best college recruitment strategies, as you are sure to advertise your school’s best assets to new students. Jumping off of that, students are more likely to stay enrolled in their programs if they are provided the best reasons to do so. If they cannot get that level of research anywhere else, they will be encouraged and proud to graduate from your institution.

Due to slowly declining enrollment rates in post-secondary schools, the conversation about how to increase college retention is a hot topic in higher education these days. The level of research and value of publications coming out of your school is inevitably linked to the will of students to remain studying with you. Students may feel compelled to switch to another school or drop out entirely if their research needs are not being met. Having state-of-the-art research facilities on your grounds is a big plus that puts your institution above others in the same area and around the world. Reputation is a crucial part of a university’s success and the evolution of its research. A positive reputation is one of the most dependable ways to attract students to your university and create a community on your campus.

That being said, for higher education institutions, reputation tends to be rather surface level. A school’s ranking could include many factors, but it is largely tied to what research is coming out of the university and into the academic world, rather than the lectures happening inside classrooms. What usually happens is that a school’s reputation will become synonymous with a particular program or department, which will then affect which research departments get more funding, leading to better tools. For example, if a school is acclaimed for its premed programs, more budget for improving research will go into perfecting those amenities, such as labs or medical clinics. Inevitably, what a school is “known for” may get more attention than other departments, even if they offer other stellar programs as well.

When a college or university gets a great reputation and strengthens its research capabilities, there is more possibility for contributors and other growth opportunities. Research opportunities and academic support are also great ways to increase graduation rates. Alumni who have gone on to successful careers will often give donations, gifts, or speeches to the university. Occasionally, these donations will be for the particular faculty or department they graduated from to aid with their future research. If these alumni members credit their school with teaching them the fundamentals they needed, they will be more likely to give back to help support the next generations of students and their research. University Advancement departments are geared toward maintaining alumni relationships and overseeing major gifts to the school.

In addition to alumni, high-profile people, business moguls, or celebrities could become interested in speaking at your university to help motivate students, especially if they are intrigued by the superior research happening on your campus. Whether they are specifically related to academics or not, your school could be the site of conferences, talks, and other events that will help attract more eyes to your school. Quality research could be the catalyst for the experiential growth of your university.

How to Improve Research in Your University

The benefits of having stellar research coming out of your institution are endless and can only affect you positively, but how can your school improve its output? Your school’s mission is to appeal to student needs and give them every opportunity to succeed, and that also extends to research possibilities. Here are some tips for improving research in your university and giving students the freedom to pursue their interests:

1.  Partner with Academic Consulting Services

A unique way to improve research in your institution is to partner with external academic advising services, such as BeMo Academic Consulting. Our partnerships will motivate students to produce their best work and succeed in their studies, which includes any research ventures. BeMo sets students up to perform well and helps them develop professionally and academically. By consulting with us, students will save time and money as they receive equal access to education. Unlimited support from trained admissions experts will help students with the A to Z of competitive program admissions, such as writing application documents and prep for standardized tests or interviews. BeMo consultants can also aid with career counselling, job interviews, and research resume building. Offering private, tailored help from academic consultants will help retain students at your university and assist them in their research projects as they prepare for lucrative careers.

2.  Encourage Student Research Programs

Improving research initiatives at your university involves directly promoting research programs to students. When it comes to student research projects at your school, what could be better than offering the chance to pursue their own interests? For instance, students on the premed track wanting to apply to medical schools often want to gain professional research experience but are limited in their options for how to do so while studying. Either their university does not offer an opportunity in their field of interest, or they require significant travel duties or a professor to supervise them. BeMo’s ultimate premed research program will provide students with research experience that is sure to enhance their application to medical school. There is a choice between a 4-month program and a 1-year option, giving students flexibility in how they want to approach their projects.

An online independent research venture such as this one does not need any physical space or laboratory to complete and can make applications stand out without the need for travel. Using one-on-one consultations, BeMo experts help students every step of the way, from choosing the best topic and scientific research methodology to eventual presentation and publication, by providing feedback throughout the entire process. Guided workshops and exercises will further help students complete their research projects. All this will lead to a certificate of completion and reference letter that will improve student success in their med school applications. Research in your institution will improve when students are encouraged to compile and present these findings. Their passion will show in the results, and these worthwhile programs can be a great selling point for the quality of research at your institution.

3.  Offer Research and Teaching Assistantships

A tried-and-true method to improving research at the university level is to offer research and teaching assistantships. Becoming an RA or a TA can span many departments and will have use in multiple career fields. These are worthwhile opportunities for students who may want them, especially since most of them are paid part-time work that a student can complete concurrently with their courses. Usually, these opportunities are reserved for graduate students, but even opening them up to upper year undergraduate students can be highly beneficial to the research output of a school. Students will get to work with their favorite professors on projects that interest them. Meanwhile, teaching assistants could learn pedagogical skills and gain further knowledge of their material by being a second-in-command to a more experienced professor. Therefore, in addition to being professional experience to contribute to a future grad school CV, assistantships can also impact a student’s own research capabilities. If they plan to apply to graduate school, they could reapply to your institution due to its familiarity and to continue their research.

4.  Include Other Disciplines 

While STEM fields do require a lot of attention in terms of research opportunities, it is important to remember all the other faculties and departments that make up a university’s curriculum. If your school offers these programs, they should also be considered just as heavily. Any research from fine arts, business, marketing, the humanities, political science, and more could add to a university’s overall performance rate. Just like how a school could be known for their premed track or their engineering graduates, they could also garner a positive reputation for any one of these fields. To some, majors within the arts or the humanities are often considered abstract and less valuable from a research standpoint, but this is a misconception. They have their own public figures, awards, conferences, and other academic events that represent the best research published. Therefore, research initiatives for these fields also have benefits for a university that puts in the effort to improve them.

First, they can be less expensive to fund, which can be a more suitable option for smaller colleges looking to improve their research output. Second, these disciplines contribute to the overall culture of the university itself, the city that the school is in, and maybe even the world at large, if popular enough. Political studies, literature publications, and art works have the ability to traverse borders and will have a long-term impact. Despite not being immediately obvious, these often-overlooked programs and their research can create a lasting difference in academia and elsewhere.

5.  Update Libraries and Databases

Access to information is very much aligned with research. Make sure your library services are as updated as possible. A library that is both visually appealing and filled with a collection of relevant books will encourage students to use its services. Research databases such as JSTOR, ScienceDirect, Academic Search Complete, and Project MUSE are a staple for many academics when looking for secondary sources. They are the best resources for accessing the most current journals or publications. Without access to these databases, a student may not be able to explore all the avenues they want to, and the research may suffer as a result. Having up-to-date subscriptions to the most popular databases will only benefit the productivity of your school.

The staff you employ to help students could also improve research. Make sure to hire the best librarians and academic advisors trained to assist students with their research or other academic needs. Your students’ grades, morale, and research will surely improve when there are university personnel there to help them achieve their goals. Implement the top job satisfaction factors to retain your best employees so that they can be at their best at all times to support student success.


Improving research in your institution is a multi-faceted and complicated undertaking. There are many ways to go about improving your school’s research initiatives, but to sum it all up, being inclusive of various academic disciplines is a strong way to diversify the content your university is associated with. Having multiple well-developed departments and programs will never hurt your school’s reputation.

Listening to the concerns of students is a great way to figure out where to start improving the research output in your school. Having external help from academic consulting services will make your school stand out to future applicants and encourage current students to work hard on their research projects.

Strategies for enhancing the visibility and reach of your research


Strategies for enhancing the visibility and reach of your research

Make your research outputs open access           Share your research data
Share your work via multiple channels Have a unique identifier for research outputs
Write for search engine optimisation Actively engage with those interested in your work
Set up author profiles and identifiers Track visibility with altmetrics

Endorsed author profiles and identifiers

The University encourages its researchers to have three author identifiers - ORCID, Scopus (where available) and ResearcherID. One of the major reasons is author disambiguation - they assist in linking research outputs to the correct author. This reduces administrative burden, improves data accuracy and the discoverability of research outputs.

  • ORCID is independent, community-driven and intended to be overarching. Some publishers and funding bodies have made providing this identifier mandatory
  • Scopus Author ID is automatically generated for authors whose work is indexed in the Scopus database 
  • ResearcherID is part of Web of Science Researcher Pofiles (produced by Clarivate Analytics)

UniSA staff homepage

For UniSA staff, your homepage will probably rank highly in search engine results.

UniSA staff homepage author identifier badgesIf you have ORCID, Scopus and Web of Science Researcher profiles the badges linking to these should appear in the About Me section. If not, Ask the Library can help!

Log in to update content on your homepage via the cog icon and under About Me > Social Media Links you can optionally add badges for Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube, Google Scholar and Instagram.

Plan your online presence

Before you create profiles, explore some of those available and consider:

  • how many profiles can you maintain?
  • who you want to reach - other researchers, the public, practitioners?
  • can you list your publications and if so how easy is it to do this?
  • can you upload full text of publications (where copyright permits)?
  • what metrics can you view on engagement with your activity or work - e.g. citations, views?
  • what do you want to achieve - greater exposure for your work, find collaborators, get comments from peers on drafts, participate in online communities, keep up-to-date with the latest publications in a field...?

More on Social Media...

Social Media for Researchers guide banner

Make your research accessible

For all publication types, consider these factors about the publisher: reputation; how well they promote your work; will your work be discoverable (e.g. via their website or a key database); their copyright policies (e.g. can you self-archive in repositories?)

For journal articles specifically, consider:

  • is the journal targeted at the audience you want to reach?
  • is the journal widely indexed - will you find articles in relevant databases and Google Scholar?
  • is the journal open access or restricted to subscribers?
  • how well regarded/influential is the journal - measured by esteem and/or citations
  • have you considered search engine optimisation when writing?

Open Access

Open Access guide banner

Open access scholarly works are available online at no cost to anyone interested in viewing them.

UniSA's Open Access Policy encourages open access by making UniSA research openly available via the Research Outputs Repository where publisher policies allow.

Certain funding bodies have open access mandates. 

Unique identifiers for research outputs

Unique identifiers for research outputs are associated with descriptive information (metadata) which can be found by searching for the identifier. Benefits of identifiers include:

  • assist others to locate referenced works
  • unambiguously claim works as your own 
  • better tracking of engagement with your research (easier collection of metrics)

Examples: Digital Object Identifier (DOI) International Standard Book Number (ISBN)PubMed Unique Identifier (PMID) | Social Science Research Network ID (SSRN ID)

Tracking your visibility

Metrics and impact guide banner

Altmetrics are non-traditional metrics such as downloads, comments, likes, tweets and views - broadly, anything other than citations in published scholarly literature. They can be accessed via some publisher and database pages, and also via the UniSA-subscribed database Altmetric Explorer. Figures are indicative only as mentions can be missed - for example, if a news site mentions your work without including details the Altmetric company needs to detect the mention, such as a DOI.