Monday, 30 August 2021

A Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization of Academic Procrastination


REVIEW article

Front. Educ. | doi: 10.3389/feduc.2021.722332

A Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization of Academic Procrastination 

 Tao Xue1, Hafiz Hanif2*, Hamsa H. Ahmed2 and Nader A. Ebrahim3
  • 1School of Foreign Languages, Baoji University Of Arts And Sciences (BUAS)), China
  • 2Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
  • 3Alzahra University, Iran

Numerous students suffered from academic procrastination because it’s a common problem and phenomenon in academic settings. Many previous researchers have analyzed its relations with other factors, such as self-regulation, academic performance, etc. In this paper, Bibliometrix and VOSviewer were used to conduct quantitative analysis and give a fully outline of academic procrastination and to catch the current hotspots and trends. The data was collected from the Web of Science core collection database which contains 1240 articles from the year 1938 to 2021. In specific, the trends of publication and the classification of articles may shed light on current trends and areas of academic procrastination research. This bibliometric paper mainly contains the analysis of authors, the most influential journals, institutions, and countries. The theoretical knowledge and research hotspots about academic procrastination mainly include “procrastination”, “academic procrastination”, “self-regulation”, “academic performance”, and “motivation”. Therefore, this paper is helpful for scholars and practitioners to comprehensively know the trend of academic procrastination research.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, academic procrastination, Bibliometrix tool, VOSviewer, The trend

Received: 08 Jun 2021; Accepted: 30 Aug 2021.

Copyright: © 2021 Xue, Hanif, Ahmed and Ebrahim. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Hafiz Hanif, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia,

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Sunday, 22 August 2021

The Invisible Citation Commons


The Invisible Citation Commons


Scholarly knowledge relies on citations. Discovering and acknowledging prior work is fundamental to knowing what has been done before, synthesizing the state of the field, and identifying spaces for new research.

Despite being so crucial, citations — the pieces of metadata that serve as references to works — are often ignored in discussions of types of open knowledge. Historically, citations and their cross-references have been laboriously collected (by hand, then by computational techniques) in bibliographic indexes. These indexes, once published in serial print volumes, are today generally offered as web-based, paywalled subscription products by scholarly entities or for-profit companies. Indexing and abstracting services are big business: Web of Science, an academic journal and proceedings index that has existed since the 1960s, can cost subscribing libraries hundreds of thousands of dollars a year. Web of Science is currently owned by Clarivate, which in 2020 had revenues of 1.2 billion USD1 from its portfolio of analytics and intellectual property management tools that monetize the research process.

Indexes like Web of Science collect and annotate references with subject information, mine published works for their citations, and provide tools to help researchers discover and analyze those citations. Because of their subscription status, access to these indexes, much like subscription-based journals, is typically limited to affiliates of subscribing libraries. The introduction of Google Scholar in 2004 changed how a generation of researchers work, by providing easy and unpaywalled access to an interdisciplinary database of citations derived from the web. However, Google Scholar isn’t transparent about its processes, doesn’t provide openly licensed or downloadable data, and includes citations that are subject to missing information and poor disambiguation.

In recent years, there has been a push to openly license citation metadata to better enable large-scale analyses and discoverability of scholarly work. The “Initiative for Open Citations” (I4OC),2 launched in 2017, has led the way in helping publishers share citations to their works under a public domain CC0 license. As of early 2021, over a billion citations from one scholarly article to another are collected in public domain databases, a major shift from just a few years earlier.3 These open databases provide the backbone for new discovery tools, and are used by academics training artificial intelligence tools. Open corpora like the Microsoft Academic Graph are themselves widely cited.4 However, Microsoft Academic Graph will be shuttered in 2021; despite their importance, new citation projects are reliant on continued funding and support by their host, and longevity is not always guaranteed.

Wikidata and WikiCite

Wikidata is a freely licensed and editable online database of linked data, with 94 million items as of June 2021.5 Like its sister project Wikipedia, it has a vibrant multilingual volunteer community that develops and maintains it, and is supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikidata also includes bibliographic metadata: as of June 2021, nearly 40 million items on Wikidata represented publications, accounting for 43% of all items.6 These are a combination of semi-automated uploads of citations from other open databases, items about notable publications that have their own Wikipedia articles, and items added manually by editors. Wikidata is also attractive for libraries, archives, and cultural institutions that want to make their metadata more openly available and reusable, and there are several ongoing projects to incorporate Wikidata into library and archival cataloging processes and connect Wikidata to new open knowledgebases.7

Wikidata items can also be created about the authors, institutions, publishers, journals, and ideas related to citations, which creates a rich network of queryable information. Wikidata items about publications can include identifiers from a vast number of other catalogs and indexes, such as national library catalogs and authority files. Thus, the Wikidata item about the Origin of Species links to the Wikidata items for Darwin and the concept of “natural selection,” but also includes 22 other national and international library catalog identifiers, as well as linking to the 73 Wikipedia articles in various language editions that exist about the work (and, because the book is in the public domain, the full text on Wikisource in six languages). Wikidata serves as a hub, including identifiers for the same work from, say, Project Gutenberg, the National Library of France, and the French Wikipedia, providing a way to map connections and coverage among these diverse entities.

WikiCite is a collective name for the volunteer community and projects focused on improving the representation of open bibliographic metadata on Wikidata and the other Wikimedia projects. WikiCite provides a home for participants from a broad range of geographies and professions — librarians, developers, GLAM practitioners, data modelers, ethnographers, and Wikidatians — who are interested in improving the citation practices and infrastructure for free knowledge. From 2016-2021, the WikiCite project was funded by several grants to the Wikimedia Foundation, most recently from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which supported a series of four community conferences and funding for innovative technical and outreach projects.8

This focus on bibliographic metadata in Wikidata has led to a rich ecosystem of tools developed by volunteers to assist in uploading, editing and analyzing these records. One such tool is Scholia,9 which creates visual scholarly profiles based on Wikidata records. Viewing a heavily-cited author — such as Jennifer Doudna, 2020 Nobel Prize winner for chemistry — shows the power that can come with visualizing citations to scholarly works. The Wikidata item for Doudna gives us biographical information such as awards received. Viewing Doudna’s author record in Scholia, however, provides a list of associated publications by year, a map and word cloud of topics, an interactive diagram of co-authors, and a list of citing authors, all based on citations in Wikidata. Scholia and related tools provide a possible open alternative for expensive and proprietary scholarly metrics tools that are currently sold by major companies like Elsevier and Clarivate.

Unsolved challenges and future directions for open citations

Unlike other open citation databases, Wikidata, like Wikipedia, relies on a dedicated and highly skilled global group of volunteer maintainers and editors. Though the Wikimedia Foundation provides a stable platform for Wikidata, with a long-term commitment to preservation and availability, stewarding this collection of data means continuing to develop and support the editor community and making it possible for new editors and entities to contribute. The openly editable model of Wikidata differs from traditional library catalogs or indexes, where editing is restricted to a small group of staff who also ensure quality and accuracy. In Wikidata, users of the data can also contribute both small fixes and large updates, but doing so requires learning complex new workflows and navigating Wikidata’s culture.

There are technical challenges as well to representing citation metadata in Wikidata. Wikidata contains only a fraction of all open citations, which is only part of all possible bibliographic metadata; tools like Scholia draw on incomplete data. However, drastically expanding the number of items about publications (such as by importing the entire open citation corpus, which would double the current size of Wikidata) raises issues of scalability, both in terms of technical infrastructure and human curation ability. An open question in the WikiCite community is whether items about publications should remain in Wikidata, or become a separate interlinked knowledgebase that could be connected to the other Wikimedia projects. Starting a new initiative like this is a complex decision with both technical and social implications.10

A related problem is how to make citations easily reusable within the Wikimedia projects and beyond. Citations form the backbone of Wikipedia articles. In an open collaborative environment where authorship is largely pseudonymous, Wikipedia articles rely on outside references for every factual claim. However, it is not yet possible to, for instance, easily add a reference to an article in Wikipedia and see how that reference is also used in other articles and language editions, trace a citation to a retracted article, or see whether the usage of a particular citation can be characterized.11 The infrastructure provided by Wikidata, or by a new interlinked project focused only on bibliographic metadata, could make this possible. There are at least 29 million citations in the English Wikipedia alone.12 Storing the citations that Wikipedia articles across 300 languages rely on as structured data would make them available for analysis and querying, which could help identify content gaps, fight misinformation, and lead to a much deeper understanding of “how we know what we know” on Wikipedia


Thursday, 19 August 2021

Tips to Increase Citation to Scientific Papers


Tips to Increase Citation to Scientific Papers

Document Type : Commentary


Assistant Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

Dear Editor

A single index for evaluation of an article was suggested by Professor George Hirsch. Nowadays, the Hirsch index (h-index) is a scientometrics and common index for assessing the output and impact of scientists, researchers, and universities. This index distinguishes influential researchers from those who publish only a large number of articles. It should be noted that this index compares the researchers who work in the same field. The h-index is based on the distribution of the citations of the works published by a person or a group of individuals. In other words, the h-index of “x” for a person means that “x” papers published by that individual have been cited at least “x” times in other published works. For example, when an author has five published works and each of them has been cited at least five times, his/her h-index is five (1). Increasing the citation of academic papers can be influential in improving the global ranking of universities (2). Consequently, it is of remarkable importance to identify the possible practices for augmenting the h-index. With this background in mind, in this paper, we mention several methods for increasing citations.

1-Using the unique name during the academic years: If your name is written with the different spelling or is a multi-part name, always use the same name in your articles. If your name is very common, in addition to the name, you can add a research identifier such as ORCID ID. Also, you may use it in your e-mail signature. Then give a link from this ID to your published articles. This

technique may cause everyone who receives your e-mail, access to your articles (3).

2-It is necessary researchers always use an affiliation and a fixed address. Also, using an academic address with complete details without abbreviated words could facilitate contacting other authors. Moreover, the authors ensure the reliability of your manuscript. It is necessary to recheck your name and affiliation before submitting the final version of the manuscript (4).

3- Use appropriate keyword for your article (5). Most publishers suggest at least 3 to 5 keywords. Repeat these words in the title and abstract may increase the visibility of your article. As a result, this strategy will increase the chances of more citations. Moreover, use keywords in the title of Pictures, photos, tables, and charts enhance the chance of visibility (3, 4). In medical sciences using MESH keywords is useful for increasing the chance of visibility.

4-"Make a unique phrase that reflects the author's research interest and use it throughout academic life" in other word, “have a research line” that indicating the interest of the author to a particular subject highlights researcher among other scholars. In addition, adding your interest at the

end of the electronic signature, you will know more specific in a particular subject (3).

5-Publish in high impact factor journals. Dhawan and Gupta studied the 1101 research articles and found that published in high-impact journals increased the citation (4).

6- Publish in open access journals increases the visibility of your article (5).

7- Deposit the articles online at the university's repository (6)[1] *.

8- The researchers found out from the results of 2172 articles that, there was a positive relationship between the number of downloads and citations. It means more download may cause more citations (7).

9- A professional web page and displaying your articles on the web will increase citation by 50 percent, as well as personal blogs and the insertion of audio and text files. Updating your pages is very important (6)1 *.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

10- Write the article with international colleagues. Research has shown that articles are written by the collaboration of several research institutes or universities has at least 4 times higher citation (4), particularly collaborating with well-known people and those who received the Nobel Prize. By the way, articles which were written by multiple authors increase their chances of receiving citations (5).

11- Increase the number of references enhances the chance of visibility of the article (3).

12- Contribute to Wikipedia. Add your finding and then refer to your article (6).

13- Join in scientific and social networks such as ResearchedGate, LinkedIn and share articles with other researchers. Remember that some publishers do not allow you to share your article (read researcher's guide first). When your article is accepted in a journal give an announcement on Twitter and Facebook (3).

14- Write and publish a review article (5, 6).

15- Articles that were judged by the reviewer and rejected, after publishing in another journal will receive more citations (3).

16- Article with a large number of "callouts" attracts more attention of readers. Many publishers use this trick for articles that are interesting (3).

17- Do not write the title of the article as a question type. These articles will have more download but less citation (7).

18- Share your research data details. Providing part of your work at your well-known conferences and publishing a summary of the article will make other scientists aware of the scientific credentials and increase the chance of citation. Also, the abstracts of these conferences can be accessed free of charge in the electronic archives of universities or institutions (5).

19- Publish your articles in journals that everyone in your discipline reads. The journals that cover a broader range of topics are the best choices (6).

20- Link the latest of your articles to your electronic signature. Then everyone who received your e-mail can see your article (5). 

21- Publish your articles in journals that have more indexes. It will increase the chances of visibility and citation your article (8).

22- Creating the audio file to describe research projects on Youtube and Wimo. It will increase the visibility of your work (3).

23- Share your resume' and interests in Research ID or ORCID online to become known to the scientific community. Your Research ID is prominent you among the colleagues (6).

24- Publish educational articles. These types of article usually receive a lot of citations (3).

25- Give citation to your colleagues, even if the authors disagree with you. Give citation to your previous paper, if there is a reasonable relationship between the two works. Remember that the self-citation should not be more than 20% of the references (6).

26- Talk about your work and your new article with colleagues, even those who are not in your filed, and send them an article to know what you're doing (4).

27- Longer articles, with more authors and more references gather more citation (9, 10, and 11).

28- In your field, refer to the person who is the pioneer in a particular topic (3).

Conflict of interest

     The author declares no conflicts of interest.

[1] . some publisher does not permit to author for depositing their article or present in personal web page

1- Hirsch JE. An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2005; 102(46):16569-16572.
2- Shahbaz-Moghadam M, Salehi H, Ale Ebrahim, N, Mohammadjafary M, Gholizadeh H. Effective factors for increasing university publication and citation rate. Asian Social Science. 2015; 11(16):338-348.
3- Ale Ebrahim N, Salehi H, Embi MA, Habibi Tanha F, Gholizadeh H, Motahar S M, et al. Effective strategies for increasing citation frequency. International Education Studies. 2013; 6(11):93-99.
4- Dhawan S, Gupta B. Evaluation of Indian physics research on journal impact factor and citations count: a comparative study. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology. 2005; 25(3):3-7.
5- Ale Ebrahim N, Gholizadeh H, Lugmayr A. Maximized research impact: an effective strategies for increasing citations. Managing and Leading Creative Universities–Foundations of Successful Science Management: A Hands-On Guide for (Future) Academics. 2017; 15:29-51.
6- Griffiths M. How to improve your citation count. Hints and Tips. 2015; 96:23-24.
7- Jamali HR, Nikzad M. Article title type and its relation with the number of downloads and citations. Scientometrics. 2011; 88(2):653-661.
8- Hamrick TA, Fricker Jr RD, Brown GG. Assessing what distinguishes highly cited from less-cited papers published in interfaces. Interfaces. 2010; 40(6):454-464.
9- Ball P. A longer paper gathers more citations. Nature. 2008; 455(7211):274-275.
10- Falagas ME, Zarkali A, Karageorgopoulos DE, Bardakas V, Mavros MN. The impact of article length on the number of future citations: a bibliometric analysis of general medicine journals. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e49476.
11- Fox CW, Paine TC, Sauterey B. Citations increase with manuscript length, author number, and references cited in ecology journals. Ecology and Evolution. 2016; 6(21):7717-7726.

Citation Best Practices


Citation Best Practices

These tips are designed to help bring visibility to your published work



Use a unique name consistently throughout your career
Be consistent with your name when submitting research. If you have quite a common name, consider including your full middle name in publications.

Use a standardized institutional affiliation and address, using no abbreviations
Include your institution, college, department, and zip code in the contact information when you submit papers for publication. Providing accurate contact details are essential so that researchers can contact you directly for queries, further information and discussions about the publication. This information also helps departments, colleges, and accrediting bodies accurately track publications.

Keywords and phrases:

Repeat key phrases in the abstract 
Make some key phrases of your study and repeat them in the abstract page of your paper. Since search engines and citation trackers search the abstract of your article, the repetition of keywords increases the chance of your paper being retrieved more easily.

Assign keyword terms to the manuscript
In an age of search engines and academic database searching, keywords in your publications are critical. Keywords and phrases in the paper’s title and abstract are also useful for search purposes. Using keywords in the URL of scientific web pages can also help readers easily determine the subject matter of the paper.

Make a unique phrase that reflects your research interest and use it throughout your career
Add the unique phrase to all publications and use it consistently.

Picking the right journal:

High impact factor journals
The most effective strategy to increase citation rates is publishing in a journal with higher impact factor. Journals that focus on web site optimization may enhance your citations indirectly. Submitting a paper to a special issue of a journal increases the likelihood that others in your field will read it.

Make your research easy to find, especially for online searchers – Open Access
Research suggests that there is a correlation between the number of downloads an article has and citations. Free access invites greater engagement with research through citations. To make your papers more accessible, consider publishing in an open access journal (see the Directory of Open Access Journals for a list of journals that observe OASPA’s principles of transparency and best practices in scholarly publishing). Alternatively, deposit your paper in open access repositories, like the WSU Research Exchange, or see re3data to search for a list of open access data repositories.

Publish your article in one of the journals everyone in your discipline reads
Choosing a journal that matches with a researcher’s field of study is very important because it makes it more likely that the article receives more citations. A journal which covers a broad range of disciplines may be the best. Publishing across disciplines has been found to increase citations.

Publish your work in a journal with the highest number of abstracting and indexing services
Citation potential increases by attributing to the high visibility of scientific materials. Therefore, a journal with the highest number of abstracting and indexing in different databases can be a good target.  Indexed journals are considered to be of higher scientific quality as compared to non-indexed journals.

Present a working or tutorial paper
Go to a conference and present some parts of your research or publish working papers. Working papers are freely available before and after the articles are published. Researchers may upload their working papers to their personal websites or more open access repositories such as arXivSSRN, or the WSU Research Exchange.  Tutorial papers are “a paper that organizes and introduces work in the field. A tutorial paper assumes its audience is inexpert; it emphasizes the basic concepts of the field and provides concrete examples that embody these concepts”. These papers tend to have a higher number of citations.

Write a review paper
Authors seeking to be well cited should aim to write comprehensive and substantial review articles, and submit them to journals that carry previous articles on the topic.

Papers published after having first been rejected elsewhere receive significantly more citations
Resubmissions from other journals typically receive significantly more citations than first-intent submissions.

Paper characteristics/types:

Use more references
There is a strong relationship between the number of citations a paper receives and the number of its references.

Papers with a larger number of “callouts” can be more likely to receive a higher number of citations
A “callout” is a phrase or sentence from the paper that is displayed in a different font, somewhere in the paper. Also, longer papers have been shown to gather more citations.

Your papers title is very important
Evidence shows that articles with short, concise, succinct and informative titles describing the results or conclusions generally have more impact and citations. Articles with question-type titles tend to be downloaded more, but cited less, than others.

Choosing collaborators:

Publish with international authors
Citation analysis shows that papers with international co-authors are cited up to four times more often than those without.

Team-authored articles get cited more
Team-authored articles typically produce more frequently cited research than do papers authored by individuals. Typically, highly cited articles are authored by a large number of scientists.

Publish papers with ‘big names’ in your field
Some landmark papers of Nobel laureates, for example, quite quickly give their authors a sudden boost in citation rate and this boost extends to the author’s earlier papers too – even if they were in unrelated areas.

Publicize yourself!:

Claim and use an ORCID ID
An ORCID is a unique identifier that you can register for at no cost. Publishers, funders, and universities are increasingly using them because they help distinguish researchers with similar names. For convenience, you can now sign in to your ORCID account using your WSU credentials. After claiming your ORCID, navigate to the ORCID sign in page, click on the “Institutional account” tab, and select WSU as your institution. For other questions about ORCIDs, see this guide and list of FAQs.

Present at conferences 
Present preliminary research at conferences and consider making posters, figures, and slides available in FigShareSlideShare, or WSU’s digital repository, Research Exchange. Contact for more information about Research Exchange or see these Research Exchange FAQs.

Create and curate your Google Scholar profile and make an online CV 
Keep a scholarly profile up to date in Google Scholar or other venues for increased visibility.  An online CV makes a link between the list of published papers and open access versions of relevant articles and increases researchers’ output visibility to the academic community.  Include your ORCID in your CV.

Keep your professional web pages and published lists up to date, issue press releases, and self-archive articles
Establish an online presence for your research—create a website that describes findings and links to slides, figures, abstracts, and progress reports. Issue press releases with significant findings. Maximize the visibility of your research by making copies of your articles available online.

Be ready to react
Once your study has been accepted for publicity, be prepared to provide a quote for the press release and, once it’s been sent out, be available for interviews (these can often be done by email rather than over the phone).  Always reply promptly to requests for interviews or further information from your press office.  Journalists are on tight deadlines and may drop the story if they don’t hear back within a few hours.

Contribute to Wikipedia
Try to contribute in Wikipedia. As a good example, one paper that was used as a reference in defining virtual teams in Wikipedia has received significant citations in comparison to the rest of the articles from the same author.

Start blogging/tweeting
Leverage social media by starting a blog or tweeting about your research. Remember to include Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in your tweets and posts. DOIs are typically assigned by publishers to published articles; they are persistent links to your work online and they help others find your research. Note that WSU Libraries can now mint a DOI for you at no cost, should you wish to add it to a dataset or other research material that doesn’t receive one from a publisher.

Join academic social networking sites
Increasing the availability of articles through social networking sites broadens dissemination, increases use, and enhances professional visibility which lead to increased citations and usage. CiteulikeResearchGate and Linkedin are just a few examples of knowledge sharing tools to make others aware of research articles that may be of relevance to authors and hence get cited.

Link your latest published article, and list your ORCID, in your email signature
A great way to spread researchers’ outputs and get extra attention of email recipient is to add a link to the latest publication. This little section of contact information provides a good platform for publication marketing.  Include your ORCID in your signature line as well.

Cite others… and yourself
Do not forget to cite your colleague’s researches in areas that are relevant – sometimes called “colleague for colleague citation”.  It is also fine to cite your own work where relevant on a new manuscript.

Create a podcast describing the research project
Research is not just text and figures. Create a podcast describing the research project and submit the podcast to YouTube or Vimeo. Video is an increasingly important way for researchers to communicate their results and welcome submissions of podcasts from authors and editors.

Set up citation alerts
Awareness of who has referred to your articles can expand further collaborations.

Use “Enhancing Visibility and Impact” tools, such as these
Familiarity with academic advertisement tools allows the researcher to increase his/her h-indexin the short term. A person with high levels of h-index has higher quality publications with high amount of citations.

Information on this page taken from the following:

A brief guide for academics to increase their citation count


Cite seeing: A brief guide for academics to increase their citation count

Apologies to any non-academics reading my blog today but this article will be of more interest to academic researchers than anyone else as it examines the strategies that I have used to get (what some people have claimed as) an “excessive” number of citations to my published work. All academics are aware that the use of bibliometric data is becoming ever more important in academia. Along with impact factors of academic journals, one of the most important bibliometric indicators is citation counts. These are increasingly being used in a number of contexts including internal assessment (e.g., going for a job promotion) and external assessments (e.g., use in the Research Excellence Framework [REF] as a proxy measure of quality and impact).

In June 2016 I reached close to 30,000 citations on Google Scholar and this is good evidence that what I do day-to-day works. I have an h-index of 91 (i.e., at least 91 of my papers have been cited 91 times) and an i10-index of 377 (i.e., a least 377 of my papers have been cited 10 times).

Citation counts take years to accumulate but you can help boost your citations in a number of different ways. Here are my tips and strategies that I personally use and that I know work. It probably goes without saying that the more you write and publish, the greater the number of citations. However, here are my top ten tips and based on a number of review papers on the topic (see ‘Further reading’ below):

  • Choose your paper’s keywords carefully: In an age of search engines and academic database searching, keywords in your publications are critical. Key words and phrases in the paper’s title and abstract are also useful for search purposes.
  • Use the same name on all your papers and use ORCID: I wish someone had told me at the start of my career that name initials were important. I had no idea that there were so many academics called ‘Mark Griffiths’. Adding my middle initial (‘D’) has helped a lot. You can also use an ORCID or ResearcherID and link it to your publications.
  • Make your papers as easily accessible as possible: Personally, I make good use of many different websites to upload papers and articles to (ResearchGate and being the two most useful to me personally). Your own university institutional repositories can also be useful in this respect. All self-archiving is useful. It is also especially important to keep research pages up-to-date if you want your most recent papers to be read and cited.
  • Disseminate and promote your research wherever you can: I find that many British academics do not like to publicise their work but ever since I was a PhD student I have promoted my work in as many different places as possible including conferences, seminars, workshops and the mass media. More recently I have used social media excessively (such as tweeting links to papers I’ve just published). I also write media releases for work that I think will have mass appeal and work with my university Press Office to ensure dissemination is as wide as possible. I also actively promote my work in other ways including personal dissemination (e.g., my blogs) as well as sending copies of papers to key people in my field in addition to interested stakeholder groups (policymakers, gaming industry, treatment providers, etc.). I have a high profile web presence via my many websites.
  • Cite your previously published papers: Self-citation is often viewed quite negatively by some academics but it is absolutely fine to cite your own work where relevant on a new manuscript. Citing my own work has never hurt my academic career.
  • Publish in journals that you know others in your field read: Although many academics aim to get in the highest impact factor journal that they can, this doesn’t always lead to the highest number of citations. For instance, when I submit a gambling paper I often submit to the Journal of Gambling Studies (Impact factor=2.75). This is because gambling is a very interdisciplinary field and many of my colleagues (who work in disparate disciplines – law, criminology, social policy, economics, sociology, etc.) don’t read psychology journals. Some of my highest cited papers have been in specialist journals.
  • Try to publish in Open Access journals: Research has consistently shown that Open Access papers get higher citation rates than non-Open Access papers.
  • Write review papers: Although I publish lots of empirical papers I learned very early on in my academic career that review papers are more likely to be cited. I often try to write the first review papers in particular areas as everyone then has to cite them! Some types of outputs (especially those that don’t have an abstract) are usually poorly cited (e.g., editorials, letters to editors).
  • Submit to special issues of journals: Submitting a paper to a special issue of a journal increases the likelihood that others in your field will read it (as it will have more visibility). Papers won’t be cited if they are not read in the first place!
  • Publish collaboratively and where possible with international teams. Again, research has consistently shown that working with others collaboratively (i.e., team-authored papers) and in an international context has been shown to significantly increase citation counts.

Finally, here are a few more nuggets of information that you should know when thinking about how to improve your citation counts.

  • There is a correlation between number of citations and the impact factor of the journal but if you work in an interdisciplinary field like me, more specialist journals may lead to higher citation counts.
  • The size of the paper and reference list correlates with citation counts (although this may be connected with review papers as they are generally longer and get more cited than non-review papers.
  • Publish with ‘big names’ in the field. Publishing with the pioneers in your field will lead to more citations.
  • Get you work on Wikipedia References cited by Wikipedia pages get cited more. In fact, write Wikipedia pages for topics in your areas.
  • Somewhat bizarrely (but true) papers that ask a question in the title have lower citation rates. Titles that have colons in the title have higher citation rates.

Note: A version of this article was first published in the PsyPAG Quarterly (see below)

Dr Mark Griffiths, Professor of Behavioural Addictions, International Gaming Research Unit, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK

Further reading

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Saturday, 14 August 2021

Trends and patterns in digital marketing research: Bibliometric analysis



Trends and patterns in digital marketing research: Bibliometric analysis


In today’s digital era, the importance of digital marketing has increased from one year to another as a way of providing novel properties for informing, engaging, and selling services and products to clients. The research’s aim is to investigate trends and patterns in the area of digital marketing research from 1979 to June 2020 through a bibliometric analysis technique. A total of 924 articles published were obtained from the Scopus database for the analysis. In this paper, we examine variant bar charts including the year of publication, writer, publication, keyword, and country to provide more insights. Results indicated that digital marketing research steadily increased during the study period and the maximum publications occurred in the year 2019 that reach to 163 documents. The trend of publications is still growing. The top 20 documents based on the times cited per year (TCpY) were qualitatively analyzed. The largest number of multiple (MCP) and single (SCP) publications was from the USA, followed by the UK and China. The top 20 most repeated authors’ keywords out of 1909 with their trends illustrated. The “real-time bidding”, “machine learning”, “big data”, “social media marketing”, and “influencer marketing” are the emerging keywords in the digital Marketing area. This bibliometric study generally provides the whole image of the field and suggests that researchers focus on novel areas to add new findings and knowledge in the literature if they conduct digital marketing research.

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Ghorbani, Z., Kargaran, S., Saberi, A. et al. Trends and patterns in digital marketing research: bibliometric analysis. J Market Anal (2021).

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  • Digital marketing
  • Electronic commerce marketing
  • Search engine marketing
  • VoSviewer
  • Bibliometric