Monday, 20 December 2021

How to Write Your First Bibliometric Paper



Literature Review: Outline, Strategies, and Examples [2021]



Literature Review: Outline, Strategies, and Examples [2021]

Literature Review: Outline, Strategies, and Examples [2021]

Writing a literature review might be easier than you think. You should just understand its basic rules, and that’s it! This article is just about that.

Why is the literature review important? What are its types? We will uncover these and other possible questions.

Whether you are an experienced researcher or a student, this article will come in handy. Keep reading!

What Is a Literature Review?

Let’s start with the literature review definition.

Literature review outlooks the existing sources on a given topic. Its primary goal is to provide an overall picture of the studied object. It clears up the context and showcases the analysis of the paper’s theoretical methodology.

In case you want to see the examples of this type of work, check out our collection of free student essays.

Importance of Literature Review

In most cases, you need to write a literature review as a part of an academic project. Those can be dissertations, theses, or research papers.

Why is it important?

Imagine your final research as a 100% bar. Let’s recall Pareto law: 20% of efforts make 80% of the result. In our case, 20% is preparing a literature review. Writing itself is less important than an in-depth analysis of current literature. Do you want to avoid possible frustration in academic writing? Make a confident start with a literature review.

Sure, it’s impossible to find a topic that hasn’t been discussed or cited. That is why we cannot but use the works of other authors. You don’t have to agree with them. Discuss, critique, analyze, and debate.

So, the purpose of the literature review is to make an outlook of existing ideas or thoughts. Abstracting from personal opinions and judgments is a crucial attribute.

Types of Literature Review.

Types of Literature Review

You can reach the purpose we have discussed above in several ways. Considering that means there are several types of literature review.

What indicates them?

In short, it’s research methods and structure. Let’s find out why and break down each type:

  • Systematic literature review is the most precise and well-defined type. It identifies, evaluates, and appraises the studied topic. The purpose is to get the lay of the land in a given research area.
    It falls into meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. They differ in the undertaken approach: deductive or inductive.
    • Meta-analysis implies the deductive research approach used. At first, you gather several related research papers. Then, you carry out its statistical analysis. As a result, you answer a formulated question.
    • Meta-synthesis goes along with the inductive research approach. It bases qualitative data assessment.
  • Theoretical literature review implies gathering theories. Those theories apply to studied ideas or concepts. Links between theories become more explicit and clear. Why is it useful? It confirms that the theoretical framework is valid. On top of that, it assists in new hypothesis-making.
  • Argumentative literature review starts with a problem statement. In other words, in making an argument. Then, you select and study the topic-related literature to confirm or deny the stated question. There is one sufficient problem in this type, by the way. The author may write the text with a grain of bias.
  • Narrative literature review focuses on literature mismatches. It indicates possible gaps and concludes the body of literature. The primary step here is stating a focused research question. Another name for this type — a traditional literature review.
  • Integrative literature review drives scientific novelty. It generates new statements around the existing researches. The primary tool for that is secondary data. The thing you need is to review and criticize it. When is the best option to write an integrative literature review? It’s when you lack primary data analysis.

Remember: before writing a literature review, specify its type. Another step you should take is to argue your choice. Make sure it fits the research framework. It will save your time as you won’t need to freeze on strategies and methods.

Annotated Bibliography vs. Literature Review

Some would ask: isn’t what you are writing about is just an annotated bibliography? Sure, both annotated bibliography and literature review list the research topic-related sources. But no more than that. Such contextual attributes as goal, structure, and components differ a lot.

For a more visual illustration of its difference, we made a table:

Attribute Annotated Bibliography Literature Review
Purpose Informative nature. Listing additional sources for a reader is possible. Squeezes the top research sources to get the most of a topic.
Content Proofs of sources’ relevance and credibility. The complete picture of the studied object.
Structure requirements
  • Alphabetical sorting
  • Separation from each other
  • Easy navigation
  • Advanced representation of sources in the text
  • Sources can appear several times
Components List formatted in the formal citation styles (MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.). Introduction, main body, and conclusion.

To sum up: an annotated bibliography is more referral. It does not require reading all the sources in the list. On the contrary, you won’t reach the literature review purpose without examining all the sources cited.

Literature Review: Step-by-Step Strategy.

Literature Review: Step-by-Step Strategy

After choosing a type, it’s time for step-by-step literature review guidelines. We are getting closer to a perfect literature review!

✔️ Step 1. Select the Topic

Selecting a topic requires looking from two perspectives. They are the following:

  1. Stand-alone paper. Choose an engaging topic and state a central problem. Then, investigate the trusted literature sources in scholarly databases.
  2. Part of a dissertation or thesis. In this case, you should dig around the thesis topic, research objectives, and purpose.

Regardless of the case, you should not just list several literature items. On the contrary, build a decent logical connection and analysis. Only that way, you’ll answer the research question.

✔️ Step 2. Identify the Review Scope

One more essential thing to do is to define the research boundaries. Find a balance: don’t make it either long or narrow.

Push back on the chosen topic and define the number and level of comprehensiveness of your paper. Define the historical period as well. After that, select a pool of credible sources for further synthesis and analysis.

✔️ Step 3. Work with Sources

Investigate each chosen source. At this step, you should start writing your review. Note each important insights you come across. Learn how to cite a literature review to avoid plagiarism.

✔️ Step 4. Write a Literature Review Outline

No matter what the writing purpose is: research, informative, promotional, etc. The power of your future text is in the proper planning. If you start with a well-defined structure, it’s about 100% you’ll reach exceptional results. What you need is writing the literature review outline.

✔️ Step 5. Review the Literature

Once you’ve outlined your literature review, you’re ready for a writing part. While writing, try to uncover insights, be selective and critical-thinking, and don’t forget to keep your voice. In the end, make a compelling literature review conclusion.

On top of that, explore some other working tips to make your literature review as informative as possible.

The purpose of literature review.

Literature Review Outline

We’ve already discussed the importance of a literature review outline. Now, it’s time to understand how to create it.

An outline for literature review has a bit different structure comparing with other types of paper works. It has the following parts:

  1. Introduction. In this part, you should outline the following characteristics:
    • Selected topic
    • Research question
    • Related research question trends and prospects
    • Research methods
    • Expected research results
  2. Body. Each paragraph should focus on one of the sources. The number of literature is equivalent to the number of paragraphs. What do you need to outline here? Write a summary of each selected resource. The following are examples of subjects to cover:
    • Overview of literature core areas
    • Research problem consideration through the prism of this piece of literature
    • Methods, controversial points, gaps
    • Outcomes
  3. Conclusion. Make clear points of inference and explain the relationships between the studied literature. A good conclusion should contain:
    • Cumulative list of arguments around the research question
    • Links to existing literature and a place of your paper in the existing system of knowledge.

It can be a plus if you clarify the applicability of your literature review in further research.

Once you outline your literature review, you can slightly shorten your writing path. Let’s move on to actual samples of literature review.

Literature Review Examples

To consolidate the above, let’s look through some examples. How does a well-prepared literature review look like? Check three samples at StudyCorgi to understand. Follow the table:

# Name Subject Description
1 Single African American Parents: Literature Review Sociology Sociology literature review raises issues of single African American parents. You can see how the author describes emerging trends and patterns. It contains the causes of single parenting trend growth: general and related to African American people. In the end, the author explains the paper’s contribution to the current literature.
2 Chronic Pain: Extended Literature Review Nursing In this nursing literature review example, the author notes the complexity and intricacy of managing chronic pain. The paper enumerates the current studies on the topic, its advantages, and disadvantages. In the synthesis, the author proposes a new and improved framework for chronic pain management.
3 Literature Review: How Can Token Economy Diminish Off-Task Behavior in Students with Autism? Psychology Psychology literature review explains the dependency of the students’ academic success on their behavior. Both environment and psychological states, including ASD, determine the behavior. The author states that the majority of children with ASD are likely to engage in disruptions. After reviewing the existing literature, the author illustrates the effectiveness of the token economy in autism.

Take your time and read literature review examples to solidify knowledge and sharpen your skills. You’ll get a more definite picture of the literature review length, methods, and topics.

Now you understand the core milestones regarding the introduction to the literature review. Understanding its purpose, types, outline rules, and examples will help you to kick off.

Do you still have any questions? Don’t hesitate to contact us! Our writing experts are ready to help you with your paper on time.

✏️ FAQ

❓ What Is the Purpose of a Literature Review?

Literature review solves several problems at once. Its purpose is to identify and gather the top insights, gaps, and answers to research questions. Those help to get a general idea of the degree of topic exploration. As a result, it builds a basement for further research. Or vice versa: it reveals a lack of need for additional studies.

❓ How Do You Structure a Literature Review?

Like any other academic paper, a literature review consists of certain conceptual parts. These are three: introduction, main body, and the conclusion. Each of them needs full disclosure and logical interconnection

The introduction contains the topic overview, its problematics, research methods, and other general attributes of academic papers.

The body reveals how each of the selected literature sources answers the formulated questions from the introduction.

The conclusion summarizes the key findings from the body, connects the research to existing studies, and outlines the need for further investigation.

To ensure the success of your analysis, you should equally uphold all of these parts.

❓ What Must a Literature Review Include?

A basic literature review includes the introduction with the research topic definition, its arguments, and problems. Then, it has a synthesis of the picked pieces of literature. It may consist of possible gaps and contradictions in existing researches. The practical relevance and contribution to new studies are also welcome.

❓ What Are the 5 C's of Writing a Literature Review?

Don’t forget about these five C’s to make things easier in writing a literature review:

Cite. Make a list of references for research you’ve used and apply proper citation rules. Use Google Scholar for this.

Compare. Make a comparison of such literature attributes as theories, insights, trends, arguments, etc. It’s better to use tables or diagrams to make your content visual.

Contrast. Use listings to categorize particular approaches, themes, and so on.

Critique. Critical thinking is a must in any scientific research. Don’t take individual formulations as truth. Explore controversial points of view.

Connect. Find a place of your research between existing studies. Propose new possible areas to dig further.

❓ How Long Should a Literature Review Be?

In most cases, professors or educational establishment guidelines determine the length of a literature review. Study them and stick to their requirements, so you don’t get it wrong.

If there are no specific rules, make sure it is no more than 30% of the whole research paper.

If your literature review is not a part of the thesis and goes as a stand-alone paper — be concise but explore the research area in-depth.



Saturday, 11 December 2021

Essential steps to write a Bibliometric paper


Ale Ebrahim, Nader (2016): Essential steps to write a Bibliometric paper. figshare. Presentation. 


Bibliometric Analysis


Bibliometric Analysis

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Bibliometric analysis refers to the cross science of quantitative analysis of all knowledge carriers with mathematical and statistical methods. It is a comprehensive knowledge system that integrates mathematics, statistics, and Philology and pays attention to quantification. The main objects of bibliometrics are the amount of literature (various publications, especially journal papers and citations), the number of authors (individual group or group), the number of vocabulary (various literature marks, among which the majority are descriptors). The most essential feature of bibliometrics is that its output must be "quantity".

1.Definitions and objectives of the paper

The term 'bibliometric analysis' is defined as a statistical evaluation of published journal papers, books, or other scientific articles, etc. and it is an effectual way to measure the influence of publications, scholars, or institutions in the scientific community. 

Based on thebibliometric analysis and from the perspective of macro development, this paper systematically aims to:

  • Summarize the latest research outcomes of industrial heritage in China and Western countries;

  • Describe the development process of the industrial heritage discipline scientificallyand quantitatively;

  • Compare the outcomes and dynamic evolution laws of industrial heritage protection research inChina and Western countries under two different development states horizontally, providing avaluable reference base for subsequent heritage conservation research


Bibliometrics analysis is now being used to evaluate academic outcomes quantitatively, which is beginning to threaten practice-based research [1].

The process of bibliometric analysis includes four modules: data acquisition, data preprocessing, statistical calculation, and application analysis. Data sources are divided into database data and web data, and the acquisition methods are divided into a manual acquisition and automatic acquisition. Data preprocessing is mainly format conversion, splitting and extraction, and filtering the data that does not meet the requirements. A statistical calculation can be divided into Top N statistics, singular value statistics, quantity distribution statistics, annual growth statistics, and other related statistics.

Bibliometrics analysis has become an important branch of information science and philology. At the same time, it also shows the important methodological value and becomes a special research method of information science. In the internal logical structure of information science, bibliometrics analysis has gradually occupied the core position and is an academic link closely related to science communication and basic theory.

3.Historical Background

From a historical point of view, bibliometrics has been used to track the relationship between citations in academic journals. Citation analysis, that is, examining the references of a project, is used to find materials and analyze its advantages [2]. Citation indexes, such as the science network of the Institute of scientific information, allow users to search for the latest publications with references to known projects from known articles in a timely manner [3].

People's research on quantitative literature analysis can be traced back to the early 20th century. Some important milestones are included below:

  • In 1917, F.J. Cole and N.B. Ayers first studied the literature of comparative anatomy published from 1543 to 1860 by using a quantitative analysis method [4]. The relevant books and journal articles were counted and classified by country.
  • In 1923, E.W. Hume put forward the word "documentary statistics" and explained it as: "through the statistics of written communication and the analysis of other aspects, we can observe the process of written communication and nature and development direction of a certain discipline."[5]
  • In 1969, A. Pritchard, a philologist, proposed to replace documentary statistics with bibliometrics [6]. He expanded the research object of literature statistics from journals to all books and periodicals.

4. Applications

According to this scientific analysis, researchers can do including but not limited to the following researches [7]:

  • Quantitatively evaluate the academic quality of a certain domain of journals, authors, or institutions by statistical methods such as citation rates [8].
  • A quantitative analysis of academic literature of a certain domain based on metrics such as citations. It consists of a review of the literature, indicating the number, evaluation, and main trends of publications concerning the domain [9].
  •  Analysis of a series of publications in a certain domain based on quantitative indicators, such as its evolution over time, number of citations, most prolific authors, etc [10].
  • A quantitative method used to examine the knowledge structure and development of a certain domain based on the analysis of related publications, such as research status, hot-spots, development forecast, etc [11][12].

5. The difference and connection between literature review and bibliometric analysis

Literature review, referred to as review, is a kind of academic paper that collects a large number of relevant materials on a certain field, a certain specialty or a certain aspect of a topic, problem or research topic, and refines the latest progress, academic opinions or suggestions of the current topic, problem or research topic through analysis, reading, sorting out and summarizing.

Both literature review papers and bibliometric papers emphasize the collation of previous studies in order to find out the current situation and shortcomings of the research.


  • The literature review emphasizes the content, that is, what aspects of the existing research include and what are the deficiencies. In terms of the number of search papers and references that can be included, representative papers should be extracted from the existing literature and written according to a predetermined research context.
  • Bibliometrics is mainly to collect papers from different sources as far as possible in a general research direction. The number of search papers should be more than that of a literature review. It is not necessary to analyze the research content of each article in detail but to summarize the number of published papers, research hotspots, research methods, and distribution of authors. Most of the references cited are highly cited papers. We can use CiteSpace, histiocytes, and other professional software to analyze

6. Results

Both China and Western Europe attach great importance to the study of industrial heritage tourism and industrial heritage value evaluation, and interdisciplinary research is increasingly close. In the past 16 years, the research on industrial heritage has shown a stable growth trend, and in recent years, the number of international publications has increased significantly. Nonetheless, according to the bibliometric analysis, there are differences in the development of industrial heritage research between China and Western Europe. The research methods and means in China are greatly influenced by foreign countries and a lack of innovation.

As the leading region, Western European research is guided by factual development. The research has several branches, such as applying new techniques, community restoration, and ecological environment restoration, etc. Notwithstanding, they have extended in many directions but there not is a unified category.

This entry is adapted from 10.3390/su12135348


  1. Andrea Moretta Tartaglione; Giuseppe Granata; Retail Customer Engagement. Advances in Marketing, Customer Relationship Management, and E-Services 2019, 1, 1-26, 10.4018/978-1-5225-7856-7.ch001.
  2. Siran Mukerji (IGNOU, India) and Purnendu Tripathi (IGNOU, India). Handbook of Research on Transnational Higher Education (2 Volumes); IGI Global: the United States, 2013; pp. 750.
  3. Gilbert Ahamer; Karl A. Kumpfmüller; Education and Literature for Development in Responsibility. Integrating Social Justice Education in Teacher Preparation Programs 2014, 1, 526-584, 10.4018/978-1-4666-4458-8.ch027.
  4. F. J. COLE and NELLIE B. EALES; The history of comparative anatomy: Part I.—A statistical analysis of the literature. Science Progress 1917, 11, 44,
  5. I. N. Sengupta; Bibliometrics, Informetrics, Scientometrics and Librametrics: An Overview. Libri 1992, 42, 2, 10.1515/libr.1992.42.2.75.
  6. Jiazhen Zhang; Jeremy Cenci; Vincent Becue; Sesil Koutra; Christos S. Ioakimidis; Recent Evolution of Research on Industrial Heritage in Western Europe and China Based on Bibliometric Analysis. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5348, 10.3390/su12135348.
  7. Ronald Rousseau; Forgotten founder of bibliometrics. Nature 2014, 510, 218-218, 10.1038/510218e.
  8. Michael Henderson; Simon Shurville; Ken Fernstrom; The quantitative crunch. Campus-Wide Information Systems 2009, 26, 149-167, 10.1108/10650740910967348.
  9. Philipp Schaer; Applied informetrics for digital libraries: an overview of foundations, problems and current approaches. Historical Social Research 2013, 38, 145, 10.12759/hsr.38.2013.3.267-281.
  10. Bibliometrics in Wikipedia . Bibliometrics. Retrieved 2020-7-17

Wednesday, 8 December 2021

Academic Search Engine Optimization: ASEO



Academic Search Engine Optimization: ASEO

Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO)

A well executed search engine optimization strategy is vital to ensure that all of your research content is visible and ranks high in the results displayed by popular search engines such as Google and Google Scholar.

As with any other kind of ranked search results, articles displayed in the top positions are more likely to be read and cited. Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO) ensures not only that your articles are found (crawled) and indexed, but it also has a strong effect on the order the articles are displayed. While search engine optimization (SEO) is mostly associated with websites and webpages, scientific articles can be optimized as well.

Tips for Academic Search Engine Optimization | ASEO


Your title should be short, descriptive, and incorporate a keyword or phrase related to your topic. Make sure to include 1 or 2 keywords related to your topic and ensure they appear within the first 65 characters of the title. Consider moving a keyword or phrase from your title to the first or second sentence of your abstract.


Make sure to carefully craft your abstract using the appropriate keywords and phrases from your article. Think of a 2–4 word phrase that a researcher might search for when looking to find your article. You can also look up specific popular keywords on Google Trends or the Google Adwords keywords tool.

Only the first two sentences normally display in search engine results so make sure to place essential phrases and keywords at the beginning of your abstract. Also, make sure to repeat your keywords and phrases 3–6 times throughout the abstract but in a natural, contextual way. Always remember that the purpose of your abstract is to clearly and concisely express the key points of your research, BUT don’t go overboard with repetition as search engines may un-index your article as a result.


Make sure you use appropriate and relevant keywords throughout your article. You should provide at least 5 keywords or phrases in the keywords field and always include the keywords and phrases you used in your abstract. You also want to provide additional relevant keywords and synonyms for those keywords as they relate to your article. Keywords are not only important for SEO, they are also used by abstracting and indexing services as a mechanism to tag research content.

Keyword Tips

  1. Include keywords in your title (1–2 words), abstract (3–6 words), and keyword fields (5–7 words). Remember, keywords may be phrases as well as single words
  2. Incorporate keywords in your headings. Headings can tip off search engines as to the structure and content of your article.
  3. Use keywords that are consistent with your topic. If you’re unsure, you can check the words used in major papers on similar topics.
  4. Let your keywords flow naturally and in the right context.Search engines tend to dislike a lot of keyword repetition (known as keyword stuffing), and may “un-index” your article as a result.
  5. Stay consistent when it comes to authors’ names and initials. Use them in same manner throughout the paper and make sure you’re referring to them in the same way they’ve been referred to in other online publications.
  6. Make sure you use headings for the various sections of your article to tip off search engines as to the structure and content of your article. Remember to incorporate your keywords and phrases in these headings wherever it’s appropriate.
  7. Remember to cite your own and your co-authors previous work. This is very important as these citations of your past work influence how search engines will rank your current and future work.

Building Links

The more in-bound links to your article, the more search engines such as Google will value and highlight your content. To do this, you want to make sure you link to your article across all your social media, networking, and institutional sites. Also, the more links that come from respected individuals and trusted sites the more powerful the effect. You will also want to encourage your colleagues to link to your article but don’t forget to do the same for them!

Google Scholar and Other Search Engines: How They Work

  1. An article is ranked by its relevance to the terms being searched. The number of search terms that appear in the article itself is crucial in determining this factor. Also, a search term used in the title will be weighted more heavily than a search term that appears in the abstract. Another factor is the length of title, with shorter titles preferred over longer ones.
  2. The specific citations you have used in your paper play a large role in your article’s ranking. Citing articles that have high rank will give your article a higher rank.
  3. Keep in mind that author and publication names in citations matter. Google Scholar favors “big names” in its searching system. “Big names” are people and publications that possess extensive expertise in a certain area.
  4. Google Scholar is known as an “invitation-based search engine” since it only indexes articles coming from trusted sources. Even if Google Scholar has received the pdf file of an article, it will still search the web for the different versions of the same file and then bundle them together in terms of indexing and ranking.

Works Cited and Consulted:

Maastrich University. Increase your research impact. MD Maastrich, The Netherlands: Author. Available at: Search engine optimization for authors. Wessex, UK: John Wiley and Sons. Available at:

How to make your research visible


How to make your research visible

I recently read an interesting article by Beel et al. (2010) who studied Academic Search Engine Optimization. Essentially, they looked into the mechanisms of Google Scholar and similar search engines for research publications. Their work gives some valuable insights into how to improve the visibility of your research by making it easier to find by others. Here are the key takeaway messages that I got from their paper:

  • Personal website. While publication of most journal paper gets automatically indexed by search engines, it can still be helpful to have your own research website. For example, my researcher website can be found here:
  • Keywords. To make sure that certain search terms (e.g. “UAV icing”) are connected to your publication, they need to occur in the document. Search engines give higher relevance to keywords that occur more often. High relevance is given for keywords that occur in the title and abstract, so make sure that they are included there (this is part of the reason why most of my papers start with “UAV Icing: …”):
  • Synonyms. Building on the keyword topic, it is also helpful to include synonyms of your research keywords in your manuscript several times in a manuscript, for example, “uncrewed aerial system”, “drone”, “UAS”, “RPAS”. In my work, I usually include a few of these synonyms in the introduction, but I will consider using them more frequently – as long as it does not affect the readability.
  • Metadata. For search engines to identify a document as an academic publication, the body of text must include standard sections that are usually found in scientific papers, e.g. “Abstract”, “Introduction”, “Methods”, “Results”, “References”, and so on. Following the popular IMRaD structure is a good idea! Also, make sure that the published pdf metadata for title and author are correct!
  • Searchable figures. For search engines to be able to “read” what is inside of a figure or picture, it needs to be vector graphic. The opposite of vector graphics is raster graphics, which are not readable by search engines. All .bmp, .jpg, .png, .tif, .gif files are rasterized and text in these figures will not be identified by search engines. Myself, I have not been paying much attention to this and will update here once I have a good way of generating vector images for publications.
  • Citations. The biggest factor for increasing the relevance and visibility of a paper is of course the number of citations it receives. The higher the citation count, the more likely it is that a paper will appear on the top in search results. It is this good academic practice to cite all work that relates to your publication, but not to inflate it artifically.
  • Access. It has been shown that open access papers have typically higher citation rates compared to publications behind a pay-wall. It is certainly a good idea to make sure that all your work is easily accessible by making it open-access or by sharing pre-prints (e.g. on your researcher website).
  • Author reputation. While the paper was not able to show (due to lack of data) that journal impact factor and author reputation play a role in the search relevance, search engines likely take this into account.

Some other good tips are to make sure you are registered on major science networking sites such a Researchgate and ORCiD.

Properly set metadata of a pdf file.
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Monday, 6 December 2021

How to Promote Your Article after It Is Published


How to Promote Your Article after It Is Published

Congratulations on the publication of your article. Promoting your work is an important part of the post-publication process which will increase the visibility, impact and citation of your work. MDPI will support you to promote your research papers within your scientific community, as well as to a wide audience.

What You Can Do to Promote Your Article

Social Media

  • Share your article on various social networks, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Mendeley, and Twitter by clicking the link on the webpage of your article. Tagging @MDPIOpenAccess as well as key people in your field might lead to retweets: Your publication may become viral on social media!
  • Send a short text (up to 200 characters) to the MDPI assistant editor who was your contact for the publication of your manuscript, and he/she will then post it on the Journal Twitter account.
  • Write a blog post to explain the meaning and possible outcomes of your research. This will lead to higher engagement of your research community.
  • Ask your institution or society to post your paper on their social media accounts and to include a story about your paper in their newsletters.

Link Share

  • Share the article link directly with colleagues and peers in your field.
  • Add a link to your article in your email signature.
  • Update your personal and institutional websites by adding the title of your article and a link to it.

Academic Research-sharing Platforms

  • Set up your profile on academic research-sharing platforms, such as SciProfiles, ResearchGate,, or Google Scholar, and add a short summary of your article.
  • Register an ORCID author identifier and add the article information to your profile.
  • Deposit your article to repositories (such as those run by your university) to make your research more discoverable.


  • Present your publication at conferences in the form of a presentation or a poster. You may participate in conferences relevant for your field organized by MDPI on


  • Produce a video abstract that briefly introduces your article.


  • Find a Wikipedia page on a topic related to your article and add a reference to your paper.

What We Do to Promote Your Article

MDPI takes a number of actions to promote and increase the visibility of your research articles.

High Visibility

  • All articles are immediately available worldwide under an open access license to maximize visibility.
  • Indexing databases receive article information from MDPI to increase readership and citations. We collaborate with Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and many others.
  • All authors cited in your article are notified that you cited their article through our service.
  • Editors and reviewers are notified as soon as your paper is published.
  • Articles are listed in the journal’s Table of Contents Alerts and sent to regular subscribers.
  • Selected articles are reprinted for their promotion at conferences and other events.

Partnering Organizations

  • Metadata and other information are passed on to partnering organizations, including CrossRef, ORCID, and Publons.

Multiple Formats for Article

  • Multiple formats are available for each article, including machine-readable XML, PDF, and Epub.


  • If you post a preprint version on, we will update the abstract page and PDF to link to the published article.

Research-sharing Platform

  • Interactive commenting and recommendation functions are available on all article abstract pages to encourage open scientific discussions.
  • The latest research is communicated via social media platforms (e.g., Twitter).
  • We will automatically add the article to your profile on the academic research-sharing platform SciProfiles.


  • Many Special Issues are compiled into books, which are announced via social media, available for purchase in hard copy, and displayed at conferences.

Enter your thesis title and let AI generate an artwork.



"Virtual Field Trips as physically active lessons for children" 
Enter your thesis title and let AI generate an artwork.


Make maps of research interactive, detailed and open!


Make maps of research interactive, detailed and open!

Make maps of research interactive, detailed and open!

Network maps are essential tools in quantitative research studies. In this blog post I argue for interactive maps that show both overview as well as details, are openly accessible, and based on open data. Such maps add value by providing more information, enhanced transparency and interpretability.

Bibliometric maps have been created for decades to provide overview of research and to make it possible for researchers to study different aspects of the research landscape, such as collaboration patterns, structure of research fields and citation relations. Several tools have been created that make it easy to create maps from bibliographic records imported from different data sources. Using these tools, maps can be created without any coding. The end result is often a static image showing some nodes and their relations. The maps are useful, because they simplify large amounts of data and highlight patterns in the data.

Static maps must be reduced to a limited number of nodes and edges to be readable. If we deal with large publication sets, this means that data must be either heavily restricted or aggregated. A lot of detail is being lost in this process, leading to reduced transparency and decreased interpretability. A new version of VOSviewer has made it possible to create bibliometric maps and publish them online. Such maps offer more interactivity by zooming capabilities and information can be shown when clicking nodes or edges. This interactivity makes it possible to visualize more nodes and to provide more information.

In a visualization of a classification of biomedical research literature, based on more than 3 million publications in PubMed, I go one step further. The visualization provides interactive features to navigate from broad disciplines down to narrow topics and retrieve the publications underlying the classification. Thereby, the visualization provides both overview of a vast amount of research literature as well as details down to individual publications.

Figure 1. Map of biomedical research (2018-January 2021). View in separate tab. The map may take a while to load and may not display properly using smart phones or tablets.

The visualization, which shows the recent three years period (2018-January 2021) is based on a classification of publications created by clustering publications in a citation network. The full classification currently contains about 18 million publications in PubMed from 1995 onwards and has been based on open data (PubMed and the NIH Open Citation Collection). All data are available in figshare.

Three levels are visualized in the map: (1) broad disciplines shown as large nodes, (2) underlying specialties shown as a network of smaller nodes and (3) topics shown as lists when clicking a specialty. From the list of topics, a link takes the user to the underlying publications in PubMed. Details about the classification and visualizations are described in a recent preprint titled “Improving overlay maps of science: combining overview and detail”.

Using the map, one can for example study research related to the ongoing pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The underlying topics in the Covid-19 cluster shows research focusing on mathematical models of the outbreak, clinical treatment, psychological impact, testing methodologies and specific symptoms. By the possibility to retrieve the individual publications, the map can be used for exploration and information retrieval. Most maps of research do not provide this feature.

Figure 2. Map of SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19 research. View in separate tab. The map may take a while to load and may not display properly using smart phones or tablets.

Another application is the opportunities given by overlays. We may for example set node sizes or colors based on some variable, such as open access publishing, citation rates or growth rate. This makes comparisons of fields possible. For example, this map of open access publishing shows a high share of open access publishing in corona virus research, but a low rate in biophysics and biochemistry. The map provides both overview of the open access publishing as well as details down to narrow topics.

Figure 3. Map of open access publishing in biomedicine 2018-2020. View in separate tab. The map may take a while to load and may not display properly using smart phones or tablets.

Interactivity and detail facilitate interpretation. The user can use information about relations to other clusters, underlying topics and retrieve publications when interpreting the contents of clusters. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. Clustering methodologies can be improved by making the resulting classifications easier to interpret, also outside the field of quantitative science studies. Overlaps of fields may be integrated into the maps and there might be better ways to position the nodes in the maps. I think that visualizations of this kind make weaknesses more apparent and provide a good point of departure for further development.

The results of the clustering methodologies are made transparent by providing interactive features and by making the maps and underlying data openly available. Anyone can navigate the map and get an impression of its validity, and anyone can download it and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses. My hope is that this transparency can contribute to improved clustering methodologies and more user-oriented maps of research. I think that bibliometric maps of other types should follow this example: (1) make the maps interactive, (2) provide as much detail as possible, and (3) make the underlying data openly available.


Saturday, 4 December 2021

Visibility and impact of our research: Publons, Scopus and Google Scholar Metrics.


Author: Ignacio Aguaded – Translation: Erika-Lucia Gonzalez-Carrion

Today, the Internet universe marks all the guidelines and stages of scientific information. From access to information, digital channels condition its processing and final dissemination.

In this sense, in the specific field of scientific dissemination, the process does not end with the publication of the work, but it is from that moment when a key phase for the life of the work begins: its dissemination and impact. Traditional libraries, and where appropriate physical bookstores, have given way to new channels, previously unthinkable, for the dissemination and knowledge of scientific research results: common social networks, scientific social networks (specifically designed for this purpose and for the exclusive use of the research community), audiovisual channels (such as YouTube, Vimeo and others), institutional repositories, selective newspaper libraries… In short, a wide range of possibilities for the work to move and be visible beyond any physical boundary.

In this specific post, we would like to highlight three key spaces for the life of any scientific researcher aspiring to international impact.

Publons ( is the official portal of the Web of Science (WoS), the maximum reference in the scientific field as it contains the Journal Citation Reports (JCR), the articles of the most prestigious indexed journals in the world. It contains other databases such as A&H (Arts & Humanities), ESCI and regional databases such as Scielo.

Publons provides researchers with a visible, internationally recognized space where indexed articles are hosted. The portal also calculates the H Index of indexed publications, as well as the number of citations globally and for each specific paper, offering public and auditable information that is invaluable for evaluating a researcher’s curriculum and trajectory. In addition, Publons also incorporates an original section with the scientific reviews made by the researcher in the different indexed journals that have been registered on the platform. This is an essential space because the academic review is acquiring a remarkable value, both for the reviewer and the scientific publications, and it is necessary to make it visible and give it a higher value.

Another strategic portal for the visibility of research results is Scopus, which automatically generates a personal space for all those who have published in some of the nearly 40,000 journals hosted in this database. Their number of publications, citations, H-index, and even graphs illustrating the progression of production and impact are displayed in a histogram. Like Publons, for researchers who direct their scientific production towards journals with high international projection – fortunately more and more of them – this website, freely accessible through Scopus Preview (, is a privileged space to have an auditable external curriculum vitae, an image of the progression of a researcher.

Third, Google, the world’s most important repository of information and scientific literature, also has a personal space option for Gmail users who have registered. In Google Scholar Metrics (, researchers can access a complete repository of their production (not only articles, but also books, chapters, communications and other academic literature), with information on the citations of their contributions and their co-authors. Particularly significant is the summary table with total citations, those of the last five years, with their corresponding H-index and H-5-index, as well as the i10 index (papers with more than 10 citations) and a complete histogram of the impact throughout the researcher’s academic life.

In short, these three tools generate a complete visibility of the scientific production and impact of researchers, being key tools to know their curriculum, in terms of volume and impact on the community (measured in citations), as well as the progression of their academic life cycle.

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