Wednesday, 24 February 2016

Papers with shorter titles get more citations : Nature News & Comment



Papers with shorter titles get more citations

Intriguing correlation mined from 140,000 papers.

Article tools

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To William Shakespeare, brevity was the soul of wit.
For scientists, it may be even more valuable, as conciseness seems to
correlate with how frequently a research paper is cited.

Letchford and his colleagues at the University of Warwick in Coventry,
UK, analysed the titles of 140,000 of the most highly cited
peer-reviewed papers published between 2007 and 2013 as listed on Scopus,
a research-paper database. They compared the lengths of the papers’
titles with the number of times each paper was cited by other
peer-reviewed papers— a statistic sometimes used as a crude measure of

As they report in Royal Society Open Science1, “journals which publish papers with shorter titles receive more citations per paper”.

impetus for the current study came from a desire to pen better papers,
says Letchford, and to see whether good writing is rewarded in research.
“As scientists, we’re all cursed,” when it comes to writing, Letchford
says, as researchers hone their specialised knowledge but often cannot
explain themselves to readers outside their own field.

Journal factors

Previous research has come to conflicting conclusions on the link between title length and citations2, 3.
And Letchford admits that their paper is merely a 'proof of concept'
that does not show that shorter titles lead to more citations.

Among the possible confounding factors is that not all journals have the same standards for title lengths. Papers published in Science,
which average more than 30 citations, are limited to titles of 90
characters, whereas the Public Library of Science journals, where papers
generally attract fewer citations, allow up to 250. To account for some
of these differences, Letchford also compared the number of citations
for papers published in the same journal and found that the pattern held

Title length and citations appear to correlate.
However, Letchford and his team did not
investigate the possible effect of factors such as subject matter,
seniority of authorship or other aspects of a paper that affect its
citation rate. John Mingers, a bibliometrician at the University of
Kent's business school in Canterbury, UK, says that even if there is a
relationship between title length and frequency of citation, a more
rigorous analysis might have found the importance of that association to
be very slight. There might simply be more citations in fields where it
is standard to write shorter titles, for example. “They have used a
large dataset, which is good, but there are problems, and what you can
conclude from these results is very limited,” he says.

Shorter is sweeter

of whether they influence citations, clear, tightly constructed titles
are in authors’ best interests, says Karl Ziemelis, Nature’s
chief physical sciences editor, as they can improve the chances of a
paper being discovered by readers and encourage them not to pass it
over. “I find that snappier ones catch my attention more,” agrees Meghan
Byrne, a senior editor at PLoS One.

Ioannidis, an epidemiologist at Stanford University in California, who
studies scientific publishing, says the work is “a cute paper, but I
don’t really trust the results to be conclusive”.

adds, “I will continue to struggle finding appropriate titles for my
papers without worrying about whether the title length may affect their

But the study has already
influenced at least one piece of writing. Given their findings,
Letchford says that the research team spent quite some time on naming
their paper.

“After all that, we thought, ‘we’d better give it a good title,’” he says.

They chose "The advantage of short paper titles".



  1. Letchford, A. et al. R. Soc. Open Sci. (2015).

    Show context

  2. Jamali, H. R. & Nikzad, M. Scientometrics 88, 653661 (2011).

    Show context

  3. Jacques, T. S. & Sebire, N. J. J. R. Soc. Med. Short Rep. (2010).

    Show context

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Papers with shorter titles get more citations : Nature News & Comment

How to improve the impact of your paper


Publishing Tips

How to improve the impact of your paper

Our top tips for preparing and promoting your paper and the best ways to monitor your success

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1. Preparing your article


Optimizing your article for search engines - Search Engine Optimization
(SEO) - helps to ensure it appears higher in the results returned by
search engines such as Google and Google Scholar, Elsevier's Scirus,
IEEE Xplore, Pubmed, and This helps you attract more
readers, gain higher visibility in the academic community and
potentially increase citations.

Below are a few SEO guidelines:

  • Use keywords, especially in the title and abstract
  • Add captions with keywords to all photographs, images, graphs and tables
  • Add titles or subheadings (with keywords) to the different sections of your article
  • Make sure there are as many links as possible to your article, e.g. from your institute's website, Wikipedia, LinkedIn, (influential) blogs, and social media 


Elsevier offers you the option of creating AudioSlides; free, webcast-style presentations. These appear alongside your article once it is published on Elsevier's ScienceDirect platform,
home to one-quarter of the world's STM journal and book content.

For more advice on maximizing the reach of your paper, read How to win attention for your
research – an author's story
in this issue.

2. Promoting your article

Presenting at conferences

Presenting and networking
personalizes your work, giving it a face and a voice, and it can create
new opportunities for collaboration. Make sure you connect with other
delegates on Facebook and LinkedIn, and direct them to your website or blog.

Media relations

  • Explain
    the significance of your research and its key outcomes in simple
    language. Use this for press releases or for sharing on social media
  • Make use of your institution's communication channels such as press releases and newsletters
  • If you think your work has interest for a wider audience, contact us at

Share Link: 50 days' free access

your article is published on ScienceDirect, we send you a 'Share Link':
a customized short link that you can share with colleagues and peers.
Via this link, they can access your article free of charge for 50 days
from the date of publication.

You can promote this link via your social media channels and/or include it on your (institution's) webpage.

Find out more about sharing your full-text article.

orcid logoORCID ID

ORCID is a unique researcher identifier linking your name, research activities and articles. If you don't already have one, you can register for an ORCID and add details of the article to
your new profile.

Scopus profile

is the world's largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed
literature and it features smart tools to track, analyze and visualize
research. When you've published an article in any peer-reviewed journal,
you automatically have a Scopus
profile. Keep it up-to-date so others can find your articles.

Social mediasmedia

Every day, scholarly articles receive 12,000 new mentions across social
media, news and blogs: that's one mention every seven seconds! It's a
powerful medium for reaching your potential readers.


networking site is used professionally by 65 percent of the researchers
we surveyed. Create a profile and post your latest accomplishments.

You can enhance your profile by adding research findings, articles, images, videos, SlideShare
presentations and audio recordings (for example, your AudioSlides
presentation). You can also join relevant groups and connect with other
researchers in your discipline.

Make an impact:

  • Create a profile on
  • Add a picture and your CV
  • Move the 'Publications' section to a prominent position at the top of your profile
  • Include any relevant honors and awards
  • Enhance your profile with images, AudioSlides and video


is a popular social media tool, but you can also leverage it for
professional purposes. You can share photos, status updates and links
regarding your research with your Facebook friends. Recent research (1)
shows that the richness of the content that you share on Facebook raises
the impact
of the post, i.e. posting images and videos during business hours has a
positive impact on Facebook likes and comments.

You can also join
groups catering for your field of expertise, connect with like-minded
research professionals and use Facebook as a collaborative space to
share with fellow researchers.

Make an impact:

  • Make a profile on
  • If you want to keep your regular profile for only social purposes, create a 'fan' page for your professional endeavors
  • Invite fellow researchers to be a friend
  • Discuss ideas and carry out debates
  • Link to your articles
  • Share images, videos and audio recordings, e.g. AudioSlides
  • Record reflections on research you have read or events you have attended
  • Ask for early feedback on research ideas
  • Recruit participants for research
  • Join groups related to your research field


gives you a chance to share quick thoughts using no more than 140
characters. Today, one third of all scholars are active on Twitter. It's
a great way to share your current research, publications and links to
new blog posts.

Make an impact:

  • Make a profile on
  • Follow other researchers and thereby increase your own following
  • Post regular content, e.g. links to hot papers, events and conferences
  • Respond promptly to direct messages and comments
  • Retweet. By promoting other members of your community you are raising your own profile at the same time
  • Use images. A picture is twice as likely to be retweeted as text


makes it easier for you to be discovered online and it's integrated
with other Google services such as Gmail and YouTube.

Make an impact:

  • Start an account or upgrade your current one if you have a Gmail or YouTube account
  • Introduce yourself and add a picture
  • Connect with fellow researchers
  • Share links to your articles, AudioSlides and conferences
  • Use Google Hangouts to hold online video meetings where you can share and view documents 
is a powerful reference manager and online social network with more
than 2.6 million users. You can collaborate with colleagues on
documents, share reading and reference lists, and stay close to research
in your field. Mendeley can help you uncover interdisciplinary and
cross-institutional connections to power your research.

3. Monitor your article

After promoting your article, you'll want to know how it has been
received. Elsevier helps you monitor your success in a variety of ways.


are a well-established measure of research impact; a citation can mean
recognition or validation of your research by others. CiteAlert
is a weekly service that automatically notifies you by email when your
work is referenced by an article in an Elsevier-published journal.

Usage Alert

can take years to build up, so a more immediate way to track the reach
of a paper is to consider how the article is being downloaded by users.
ScienceDirect Usage Alerts do this by sending the authors of articles
published in our participating journals a quarterly email, which links
to a dashboard
of ScienceDirect usage data for the first year of the article's


Who's talking about papers online and what's being said?
is an analytical tool tracking and analysing online activity around
your article. It does this by watching social media sites; science
blogs; many mainstream media outlets and special interest publications;
and reference managers for mentions
of academic papers.

Find out more in the article Elsevier is expanding its use of
in this issue.


Getting noticed today means using the abundant online and social
media tools available to better promote your research findings and
publications. As a result, not only will your research become more
visible, but you'll also attract more readers, potentially increase
citations, build a stronger reputation
and expand your professional network.

For more
information click here.

Author biography

Manon BurgerManon Burger
Manon Burger, MA, started her career in STM publishing at Elsevier in
1999 in
various marketing and publishing roles. She then moved to General
Publishing as
a Head of Marketing, exploring new business models and innovative ways
marketing. She has been back at Elsevier since April 2014 as a Project
Manager in the Marketing Communications & Researcher Engagement
department and is responsible
for global projects. She has a MA in English Literature and Linguistics
from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and a MA(Ed) at
the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. She is based in Amsterdam.


(1) Sabate, Ferran, 2014. "Factors influencing popularity of branded
content in Facebook fan pages". European Management Journal. DOI:

How to improve the impact of your paper

Social media for researchers | The University of Auckland - Libraries and Learning Services


Social media for researchers

media helps publicise your research activities which leads to greater
visibility and discoverability both within and outside your immediate
field of expertise.

This guide outlines some recommended social media platforms, channels and methods for academic research dissemination.

Tip: Keep your public and private personae separate.

Which social media platform you use depends in part on what you want to achieve.

Last updated : 30 July 2015

Social media for researchers | The University of Auckland - Libraries and Learning Services

Maximise your impact - Scholarly Communication - IOE LibGuides at Institute of Education, London


Maximise your impact

Improve the visibility of your research

your research available to the widest possible audience and improve the
discoverability of your material by adopting one or more of the
following strategies:
Make material available via open access
  • Remove journal subscription cost barriers so material is freely available online.
  • For example, publish in open access journals or deposit in the institutional repository IOE ePrints
Use Social Media to promote your article
  • Eliminates
    many traditional barriers to reach the general public by using social
    media sites such as Twitter, FaceBook and by blogging (see IOE LibGuide on Social Media for Researchers for instructions on how to get started)
  • Receive rapid feedback and make new connections from these sites
  • Measure and track social media impact and changes to real-world practice
Write to enhance discoverability
  • Create a clear, descriptive titles which includes the key words
  • Reiterate the key words or phrases from the title within the abstract itself to optimise search results   
  • Choose journals that are indexed in a wide number of databases
  • Blog about your research keeping in mind a more general audience - you are writing now for the lay public.

Build an online profile

increasing your profile, your contacts and personal impact, you can
increase your success rate in the competitive environment of academia.
Register an Author ID
Social Media

Twitter tips for editors | Editor Resources


Twitter tips for editors



Many researchers are now using Twitter, the free social networking
service, to connect with like-minded academics and to spread the word
about their own research. Taylor & Francis has produced a popular
guide on how to "Tweet your research" which outlines the way that researchers can use Twitter to increase research impact, both before and after publication.

Twitter is also becoming an increasingly valuable tool for building
brand awareness and product engagement. Many journals editors, working
in conjunction with their publisher, are embracing Twitter in order to
reach a digital audience and promote their journal(s) more widely. A
well-managed journal Twitter account, as part of a wider marketing
strategy, can help build and maintain the brand and reputation of
journals and enable editors to connect with authors and readers on a
personal level, enhancing key relationships.

It is worth remembering that along with the benefits of social media
come the challenges and cautions. Any tweet posted (including replies)
is immediately and publicly viewable. For this reason, it’s important to
remain professional and polite in your tweets. A good rule is – if you
wouldn’t say it to someone’s face, don’t say it on Twitter!

To help support our editors who are already using Twitter to promote
the journals they work on (and those who are keen to give it a try), we
have put together some guidelines and tips.


  • Include links to relevant journal articles or news in your tweets.
  • Try using a social media dashboard (e.g., Hootsuite) which allows
    links to be shortened, clickthroughs to be tracked, and shows you where
    you’ve been mentioned.
  • Copy in other Twitter handles (e.g., @JohnSmith) where possible, as
    this will let the person know you are referencing them and potentially
    increase the reach of the post.
  • Include some personality in your tweets!
  • Engage with your followers and contribute to interesting (and relevant) conversations about your journal(s) or subject area.
  • Use hashtags to engage with key topics as appropriate, e.g.,
    #PeerReview, #ResearchImpact (remember only letters and numbers work, no
    special characters or punctuation and stick to a maximum of 3).
  • Retweet other posts which you think are relevant to your followers.
    Ideally you should add some commentary before a retweet as this will
    give your post “added value” and initiate/extend conversation: Auto-RT
    if you have nothing to add; manual RT to comment/clarify/add context; MT
    (Modified Tweet) to edit the original tweet for space/clarity.
  • Remember that @Replies and tweets starting with @User can only be
    seen by people who follow both you and the person you reply to. Adding
    some text or a full stop before the Twitter handle will allow everyone
    who follows you to see the reply, providing a wider audience.
  • Ask questions to spark debates or conversations. Where appropriate, reference the article or event that inspired your question.
  • TOP TIP! If you're hoping a post gets retweeted, don’t use
    up the full 140 characters, so people can add a comment when they RT you
    (120 is the new 140!).


  • Forget to proof-read your tweet before you post it to make sure
    there are no errors (e.g. correct Twitter @handles and typos). If you do
    make an error you can delete the tweet and redo.
  • Make your tweets too long – be clear, concise, and leave room for people to retweet and comment.
  • Engage in lengthy debates.
  • Overdo it - hashtags, retweets, and links are all great tools but
    shouldn’t dominate your posts. Concentrate on adding new valuable
    content and replying to relevant people.
  • Post a generic “Thanks!” or “Thanks for the RT/Follow.”

Tips on thanking people for Retweets and Follows

You don’t need to thank everyone for simply following or retweeting
you; however, you may want to show gratitude for certain interactions
from certain significant people. Some suggestions include:

  • Follow back (when appropriate).
  • Reciprocate – view the user’s timeline and retweet one of their posts.
  • Converse – Tweet the person or people who RT’d you to continue the conversation and draw further opinions.
  • Direct Message – send a personal message with a note of thanks.
  • RT the RT – if the user has added insight or intelligent comment to your post, retweet it.
  • Group Mention – Mention all the users that RT’d your post and include a comment.

Live tweeting

Tweeting from conferences and other events is about giving a flavor
of the day, so don’t be afraid to let your voice come through in the
tweets – people are much more likely to engage in it if this happens. If
you put #TandFEditors into Twitter you can see examples of live
tweeting at our Round Tables and workshops for editors.

Using Twitter: a basic guide

The Home tab

The Home tab on the top left shows you the “news feed,” that is, all
the tweets that have been posted by your followers and those who have
followed you. On the right you will be able to see how long ago the user
posted the tweet, with the most recent tweets appearing at the top.

When you hover over a tweet in the news feed, a menu will pop up
which allows you to reply, retweet, or favorite that particular post.

Trends can be viewed on the left – these are the topics which many users are all talking about at the same time.

Composing a tweet

On the left-hand side of the news feed there is a box where you can
type in new tweets. Bear in mind there is a 140-character limit. An
alternative way to tweet is to click the “Compose a tweet” button
highlighted in blue in the top right corner.

Direct messages

To send a direct message (can only be sent to users who follow you)
go to the recipient’s page and click on the menu button (silhouette of a
person with dropdown arrow situated next to the number of followers)
and select “send a direct message.”) Messages are also limited to 140


When you click the “@connect” button on the top tab you are able to
view the tweets of followers who have interacted with you. You can
filter this to just see those who have “mentioned” you in their tweets.


When a # is placed in front of a word or phrase (no spaces are used),
this becomes a hashtag. These can be used to link tweets that are all
part of the same topic, so when users search for a specific hashtag they
can view all related tweets together.

Enjoy your tweeting!

Published: June 16, 2015 | Author:

Leila Jones,

Publishing Manager - Journal Development

| Category: Front page, Raising the profile of my journal |
Tagged with:

Twitter tips for editors | Editor Resources

Tuesday, 23 February 2016

10 Reasons why academics should blog [Infographic]


10 Reasons why academics should blog [Infographic]

can you improve your writing and productivity, collaborate and network
more easily, find new and unexpected experiences, disseminate your
research more widely, and build your reputation? Start a blog. Academics
can realize many benefits from blogging. This infographic shares ten of
those benefits:

infographic_10 reasons why academics should blog

10 Reasons why academics should blog [Infographic]

Monday, 22 February 2016

An Exploration of Mendeley Reader and Google Scholar Citation for Analysing Indexed Article - Diponegoro University | Institutional Repository (UNDIP-IR)


An Exploration of Mendeley Reader and Google Scholar Citation for Analysing Indexed Article

Adian Fatchur Rochim, Adian and Riri Fitri Sari, Riri (2016) An Exploration of Mendeley Reader and Google Scholar Citation for Analysing Indexed Article. The Asian-Uninet Scientific and Plenary Meeting . pp. 78-85. ISSN 978-602-294-097-5
[img]PDF - Published Version


paper aims to analyze the number of readers from the published articles
of 100 Indonesian researchers in Mendeley reference management
software. The list of Indonesian scientists is obtained from the
webometrics ranking of scientists. We used the Application Programming
Interface (API) of Mendeley to count the number of readers for each
article in Mendeley and combine it with Google Scholar citation using
the scrap method. We processed ten mostly cited articles that are
indexed in the first page of the Google Scholar for each designated
scientist. Furthermore, we used the Pearson method to analyze the
correlation of the Mendeley readers count and the Google Scholar
citation. The results show that they are correlated with a value of
0.266 according to the method of Pearson with N = 1000. Furthermore we
found that many online Indonesian journals have no Digital Object
Identifier (DOI) yet. Our evaluation of the publication results of 100
Indonesian researchers shows that authors who upload their scientific
work on Mendeley, have higher citation number in Google Scholar, because
their papers are widely available on the Internet.

Keywords: Mendeley, Google Scholar and Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Z Bibliography. Library Science. Information Resources > Z665 Library Science. Information Science
Divisions:Faculty of Engineering > Department of Computer System
Faculty of Engineering > Department of Computer System
ID Code:47624
Deposited By:MEng. Adian Fatchur Rochim
Deposited On:17 Feb 2016 14:42
Last Modified:17 Feb 2016 14:42

An Exploration of Mendeley Reader and Google Scholar Citation for Analysing Indexed Article - Diponegoro University | Institutional Repository (UNDIP-IR)

Enhancing the Impact and Readership of Your Work


Enhancing the Impact and Readership of Your Work

By The Grid
On September 2nd, 2013
No Comments

Who is getting your research?
The following steps are
designed to help ensure that as many people read your work as possible
and that it has a tangible impact. We recommend that you complete as
many of the suggested steps as possible, if they apply to you and your
Our journal
will be sharing your work via our website, mailing list and social
media – and by ensuring that it is indexed in multiple databases. If you
need help with disseminating your research or would like to discuss
strategies specific to your article, please let us know.
1) E-mail Co-Workers, Mailing Lists, Industry Contacts etc.
The easiest method to enhance
publication impact is to send an e-mail to colleagues and peers
informing them that your work has just been released.
This may take a bit of creativity.
Consider what e-mail lists you have access to: (i) colleagues at your
institution, (ii) undergraduate or post-graduate students, (iii)
collaborators on research projects, and (iv) members of professional
associations/networks. You may wish to combine these lists and send out
one announcement, or you may see a benefit in taking 10 minutes and
customizing a message for each particular group.
Remember to keep emails short and
simple. Also, be sure to include a link to the article. By having
readers visit the article online, your article will rise more quickly in
the list of “Most Read” articles on the journal site.
You may wish to use the e-mail to ask
others to share your recent research with pertinent colleagues via
e-mail or via social media platforms, if they are comfortable doing so.
2) Advertise the Article via Personal and Institutional Social Media Platforms
Social media is a valuable (and free)
opportunity to announce your research to a potentially large audience.
Currently, the most important social media platforms are Twitter,
Facebook and LinkedIn. Institutional accounts are likely to be handled
by a research assistant, intern or administrator, who you’ll need to
Announce the publication multiple times,
as it may get swamped among other content or may not be timed right for
other regions around the world. Consider announcing it a couple of
times after it has been released, but general rules would be:
• Don’t announce anything on a Friday (article views are always much lower at weekends).

• Don’t Tweet at midnight, if you target audience will be asleep
[consider time zone differences– if you have followers in different
continents, take this into account].

• Always include the URL (web address) for the article. In Twitter, be
sure to shorten the URL so that it does not get cut off when people
re-tweet it [for instance, see or].
In LinkedIn, keep in mind that they have a “publications” section in
your profile where you can list and link to your work. Also, LinkedIn
groups offer fantastic opportunity to advertise research. Check out
specialized groups pertinent to your work or overarching groups that
tend to be widely followed. For example, go to the LinkedIn page and
start a new “Discussion” about your research; frame it provocatively or
in a way to garner attention.

For a convincing argument on why posting your publications on social media platforms is a valuable task, see:

[You might also want to see “Strategies to Get Your Research Mentioned Online”:].

3) Insert References to Your Work into Wikipedia Articles

This will help to improve quality of the Wikipedia coverage on your
subject matter, whilst also helping to draw traffic to your article.

Go to Wikipedia – create an account if you don’t have one – and find
existing Wikipedia articles directly relevant to your article that would
benefit from additional citation information. In appropriate locations
throughout these articles, add citations referring to your work. This
can be done by:

  • Add a Reference: This is quick and easy. Go to the “Edit” window of
    the Wikipedia page. (Click on Edit at the top right of the article.)
    Find a place where you would like to add a footnote to your work – using
    the citation format within your published article. There, add the
    For Instance: <ref>Deazley, R 2014. Comics, Copyright and Academic Publishing. The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship 4(1):5, DOI:</ref>
  • Add an External Link: If the article has a list of “external links”,
    go to the list at the bottom of the page and add an entry. An entry
    will start with an asterisk (*), followed by a bit of text in between
    two brackets: [text goes here]. Inside of the brackets, you insert the
    URL/web address for your article followed by a space. Whatever you put
    after the space will be the display text (that the reader at Wikipedia
    will be able to see).*[URL Title of the Article]
For Instance: *[ “Comics, Copyright and Academic Publishing” by Ronan Deazley, 22 May 2014]

Please also ensure that you only place citations that are directly
relevant to your publication, otherwise Wikipedia may remove the edit.

4) Upload to Databases, Websites and Communities of Practice

The journal will index publications in online libraries and databases
of journal articles. These may take a few weeks to include your
article, but they will be submitted as soon as possible.

However, including articles in appropriate databases and websites is
also your responsibility. Identify pertinent databases, websites and
communities of practice that either have (a) an online document library
or (b) an online bibliography or list of resources. Or ask colleagues if
they belong to any sites or relevant communities of practice where they
could upload your work. These often have standard ways of submitting
new research, either by sharing the URL to your research or by sending
an e-mail to a generic inbox.

5) Blog about Your Work – and Comment on It

This is a time-consuming process but often an effective one. There are two main ways to subtly promote your work online.

  • Blogs: Find relevant blogs and contact the bloggers to ask them to
    consider writing about your recent research and to discuss its potential
    implications. Ask if they wouldn’t mind reviewing your article on their
    site. Or, if you have a blog, or if your institution does, write a post
    summarizing your research and drawing out its implications in a pithy
    manner. This could be a mere 150-500 words but should not repeat your
  • Comments: If your article concerns a timely subject mater, consider
    visiting relevant news articles (,, etc).
    In the “comment” section at the end of the article, post a one-sentence
    comment highlighting the relevant research you just released and
    providing a link to the full text of the article. You may feel awkward
    posting such comments on news sites or blogs, but they will help draw
    additional attention to your article (including among journalists, who
    often review comments on their articles).
6) Ask Others For Assistance In Disseminating Your Work
Ask others for help in disseminating
your work. For instance, consider the following options: (i) ask your
office or department’s administrator to send it out to your
institution’s e-mail lists; (ii) see if your IT personnel could
advertise the article at your institution’s website/homepage or on your
personal profile page; (iii) ask colleagues or students to share the
article via their blogs or social media accounts, if they are
comfortable doing so; or (iv) send the article to teaching faculty,
proposing that they include it in upcoming courses.
There is nothing inappropriate about
asking for support in disseminating your work. Just don’t push too much,
and be willing to return the favour.
Note: When disseminating publications,
you may receive questions about copyrights and permissions. As all our
publications are released under the Creative Commons
License, authors retain the copyright to works published. Hence,
re-post it on any site – either text or the PDF file. There’s no need to
ask permission, we simply request that you indicate where the work was
first published; include a URL to the original version if possible.
*Source text provided by Steven A. Zyck and edited by Tim Wakeford. Adapted for The Comics Grid by Ernesto Priego.

Updated by Ernesto Priego on 28 May 2014.

About the author

The Grid has contributed 110 articles.
This is The Comics Grid's collective Editorial account.

Enhancing the Impact and Readership of Your Work

Trend of 100 Top-cited Articles on Agricultural Risk

Trend of 100 Top-cited Articles on Agricultural Risk

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Friday, 19 February 2016

Keywords, discoverability, and impact


J Med Libr Assoc. 2015 Jul; 103(3): 119–120.
PMCID: PMC4511049

Keywords, discoverability, and impact

Tanja Bekhuis, PhD, MS, MLIS, AHIP
Editors' Note: Keywords will improve the article impact and are now necessary for Journal of the Medical Library Association articles. Here is a brief editorial with background information.
When the editor of the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA) asked me to write a piece about author keywords in MEDLINE structured abstracts [1],
the first thing I did was search for “keywords” in Google and Google
Scholar. This exercise was reminiscent of the lithograph Drawing Hands by M. C. Escher [2].
Think about it. I used Google, an ├╝ber-web search engine, to write
keywords to find keywords. Google and Google Scholar returned a deluge
of information (721 million and 4.35 million hits, respectively). Not
surprisingly, at the top of the first page in Google were hits for
Google AdWords and their Keyword Planner Tool [3].
I then did more focused searches in the ACL Anthology, a digital archive of papers in computational linguistics, and in Scientometrics
or journals with similar coverage to confirm that keyword analysis is
thriving in the text-mining and bibliometrics communities; for example,
see Ventura and Silva [4] or Yao et al. [5].
the circularity of my initial searches and too narrow follow-up
attempts, I learned that the meaning of the concept varies depending on
the domain. For example, in the search engine optimization (SEO) domain,
keywords are terms that improve page rank. Shrewd selection and
placement of words or phrases visible to the user or buried in hypertext
markup language (HTML) can move a hit toward the top of a list returned
by a search engine. Regarding these terms, the world of SEO has some
curious neologisms, such as spamdexing, which refers to keyword
stuffing, search engine spam, or black-hat SEO [6].
In contrast, white-hat SEO is ethical; its practitioners eschew
black-hat techniques. In corpus linguistics, keywords discriminate
between collections of documents to identify what is unique about, say,
general versus scientific prose, or British versus American English [7]. Text miners and other computational scientists extract informative keywords to classify documents or improve retrieval.
This brings us to why you, as an author, should carefully consider the list of keywords that you will assign to your JMLA
article and its relationship to your title and abstract. Think of
optimization principles for discoverability of your article beyond
MEDLINE and potential effects on the impact of your work. Overall,
enhancing discoverability of JMLA articles should improve
journal visibility, subsequent citation counts, and its impact. This is a
desirable outcome for you and the profession.
could depend on how well the title, abstract, and keyword list form a
miniaturized version of your paper. This is why a good structured
abstract resembles a paper written in the “Introduction, Methods,
Results And Discussion” (IMRAD) format (see Cooper's editorial in the
April 2015 JMLA). The title includes the most important
concepts in your paper and, ideally, the study design; the abstract
summarizes the components of your paper; and the keyword list includes
relevant concepts but with more detail than in the title. If keywords
are too broad or too narrow, they are useless. All three pieces are
important because web search engines and text-mining applications target
these sections and sometimes overweight text, depending on location.
Additionally, when presented to the reader, the title, abstract, and
keyword list must be laden with relevant information to capture
To write the keyword list for the JMLA,
channel your inner indexer. Select the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
that best characterize your topic to improve retrieval in MEDLINE [8].
Additionally, find words and phrases not covered by MeSH but known to
practitioners and researchers in your field. The MeSH terms you proffer
could improve decisions that a National Library of Medicine human
indexer makes—after all, you are likely to know more about the topic of
your paper than the indexer does. Adding non-MeSH terms could improve
discoverability of your article by web search engines and by users who
search digital repositories aside from PubMed and PubMed Central.
For example, in a recent paper we wrote for the JMLA on building gold standard datasets as a prelude to developing search filters [9],
my coauthors and I reported that “oral squamous cell carcinoma” is not
covered by MeSH, even though it is the most common cancer of the oral
cavity. However, the term is a synonym for “mouth squamous cell
carcinoma” in Emtree, the controlled vocabulary for Embase [10]. It also appears in the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus as “oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma” [11]. Any of these terms would have been good keywords for our paper.
sum, if terms from controlled vocabularies beyond MeSH seem useful,
consider adding them to your keyword list. Additionally, consider
free-text terms for which users are likely to search. By carefully
constructing your title, abstract, and keyword list, you will enhance
discoverability of your article and its potential impact.
figure mlab-103-03-119-120-uf01


1. US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health . Structured abstracts [Internet] Bethesda, MD: The Library [cited 18 Nov 2014] <>.
2. Escher MC. Drawing hands [Internet] Lithograph, 332mm × 282mm. 1948 [cited 25 Feb 2015]. <>.
3. Google Ads Google AdWords keyword planner [Internet]. Google. 2015. [cited 25 Feb 2015]. <>.
4. Ventura
J, Silva J. Automatic extraction of explicit and implicit keywords to
build document descriptors. In: Correia L, Reis LP, Cascalho J, editors.
Progress in artificial intelligence. Springer; 2013. pp. 492–503.
5. Yao
Q, Chen K, Yao L, Lyu PH, Yang TA, Luo F, Chen SQ, He LY, Liu ZY.
Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems
research. Health Res Policy Syst. 2014 Jun 5;12(1):26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
6. Weideman M. Website visibility: the theory and practice of improving rankings. Chandos Publishing, Elsevier; 2009.
7. McEnery T, Hardie A. Corpus linguistics: method, theory and practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2011.
8. US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health . MeSH: Medical Subject Headings [Internet] Bethesda, MD: The Library [cited 28 Oct 2014] <>.
9. Frazier
JJ, Stein CD, Tseytlin E, Bekhuis T. Building a gold standard to
construct search filters: a case study with biomarkers for oral cancer. J Med Lib Assoc. 2015 Jan;103(1):346–54. DOI: [PMC free article] [PubMed]
10. Elsevier BV; What is Emtree? [Internet] [cited 28 Oct 2014]. <>.
11. US National Cancer Institute . NCI thesaurus [Internet] Bethesda, MD: The Institute [cited 28 Oct 2014]. <>.

Articles from Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA are provided here courtesy of Medical Library Association

Keywords, discoverability, and impact

Citation Frequency and Ethical Issue


Electron Physician. 2014 Apr-Jun; 6(2): 814–815.
Published online 2014 May 10. doi:  10.14661/2014.814-815
PMCID: PMC4324277

Citation Frequency and Ethical Issue

Dear Editor:

I read your publication ethics issue on “bogus impact factors” with great interest (1).
I would like to initiate a new trend in manipulating the citation
counts. There are several ethical approaches to increase the number of
citations for a published paper (2). However, it is apparent that some manipulation of the number of citations is occurring (3, 4). Self-citations, “those in which the authors cite their own works” account for a significant portion of all citations (5).
With the advent of information technology, it is easy to identify
unusual trends for citations in a paper or a journal. A web application
to calculate the single publication h-index based on (6) is available online (7, 8). A tool developed by Francisco Couto (9)
can measure authors’ citation impact by excluding the self-citations.
Self-citation is ethical when it is a necessity. Nevertheless, there is a
threshold for self-citations. Thomson Reuters’ resource, known as the
Web of Science (WoS) and currently lists journal impact factors,
considers self-citation to be acceptable up to a rate of 20%; anything
over that is considered suspect (10).
In some journals, even 5% is considered to be a high rate of
self-citations. The ‘Journal Citation Report’ is a reliable source for
checking the acceptable level of self-citation in any field of study.
The Public Policy Group of the London School of Economics (LSE)
published a handbook for “Maximizing the Impacts of Your Research” and
described self-citation rates across different groups of disciplines,
indicating that they vary up to 40% (11).
there is no significant penalty for the most frequent self-citers, and
the effect of self-citation remains positive even for very high rates of
self-citation (5). However, WoS has dropped some journals from its database because of untrue trends in the citations (4).
The same policy also should be applied for the most frequent
self-citers. The ethics of publications should be adhered to by those
who wish to conduct research and publish their findings.


1. Jalalian M, Mahboobi H. New corruption detected: Bogus impact factors compiled by fake organizations. Electron Physician. 2013;5(3):685–6. doi: 10.14661/2014.685-686. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
2. Ale
Ebrahim N, Salehi H, Embi MA, Habibi Tanha F, Gholizadeh H, Motahar SM,
et al. Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency. International Education Studies. 2013;6(11):93–9. doi: 10.5539/ies.v6n11p93. [Cross Ref]
3. Mahian O, Wongwises S. Is it Ethical for Journals to Request Self-citation? Sci Eng Ethics. 2014:1–3. doi: 10.1007/s11948-014-9540-1. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
4. Van Noorden R. Brazilian citation scheme outed. Nature. 2013;500:510–1. doi: 10.1038/500510a. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
5. Fowler JH, Aksnes DW. Does self-citation pay? Scientometrics. 2007;72(3):427–37. doi: 10.1007/s11192-007-1777-2. [Cross Ref]
6. Schubert A. Using the h-index for assessing single publications. Scientometrics. 2009;78(3):559–65. doi: 10.1007/s11192-008-2208-3. [Cross Ref]
7. Thor
A, Bornmann L. The calculation of the single publication h index and
related performance measures: a web application based on Google Scholar
data. Online Inform Rev. 2011;35(2):291–300.
8. Thor
A, Bornmann L. Web application to calculate the single publication h
index (and further metrics) based on Google Scholar 2011 [cited 2014 3
May]. Available from:
9. Couto F. Citation Impact Discerning Self-citations 2013 [cited 2014 3 Ma]. Available from:
10. Epstein D. Impact factor manipulation. The Write Stuff. 2007;16(3):133–4.
11. Public Policy Group L. Maximizing the impacts of your research: a handbook for social scientists. London School of Economics and Political Science; London, UK.: 2011.

Articles from Electronic Physician are provided here courtesy of The Electronic Physician

Citation Frequency and Ethical Issue