Saturday, 30 September 2017

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of solar hydrogen generation literature from 2001 to 2014


Scientometrics. 2015; 105(2): 759–771.
Published online 2015 Sep 9. doi:  10.1007/s11192-015-1730-3
PMCID: PMC4653236

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of solar hydrogen generation literature from 2001 to 2014


hydrogen generation is one of the new topics in the field of renewable
energy. Recently, the rate of investigation about hydrogen generation is
growing dramatically in many countries. Many studies have been done
about hydrogen generation from natural resources such as wind, solar,
coal etc. In this work we evaluated global scientific production of
solar hydrogen generation papers from 2001 to 2014 in any journal of all
the subject categories of the Science Citation Index compiled by
Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Philadelphia, USA. Solar
hydrogen generation was used as keywords to search the parts of titles,
abstracts, or keywords. The published output analysis showed that
hydrogen generation from the sun research steadily increased over the
past 14 years and the annual paper production in 2013 was about three
times 2010-paper production. The number of papers considered in this
research is 141 which have been published from 2001 to this date. There
are clear distinctions among author keywords used in publications from
the five most high-publishing countries such as USA, China, Australia,
Germany and India in solar hydrogen studies. In order to evaluate this
work quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were used to the
development of global scientific production in a specific research
field. The analytical results eventually provide several key findings
and consider the overview hydrogen production according to the solar
hydrogen generation.

Electronic supplementary material

online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11192-015-1730-3) contains
supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Keywords: Solar hydrogen generation, Hydrogen generation, Water splitting, Hydrogen literature


Today’s energy shortage and environment pollution are the two issues that we face in this century (Maghami et al. 2014, 2015), and due to these reasons, the industry for producing renewable energy is growing (Kotler 2011; Motlagh et al. 2015). One of the important methods of energy generations from renewable energies is solar hydrogen (Momirlan and Veziroglu 2002; Bak et al. 2002; Barbir 2005; Momirlan and Veziroglu 2005; Zhang et al. 2007; Sherif et al. 2005; Veziroglu 2008; Nadal and Barbir 1996; El-Bassuoni et al. 1982; Sopian et al. 1996).
As a renewable and clean source, solar energy has gained significant
attention in recent years for the high demand for low energy at a
competitive cost and with zero emissions (Nadal and Barbir 1996; Dincer 2011; Eriksson et al. 2006; Barbir 2012; Fakioğlu et al. 2004).
Since solar energy is inherently variable and intermittent, one of the
main obstacles to their widespread use in providing reliable electric
power is the requirement to store the electrical energy (Gorensek and
Forsberg 2009; Xiong et al. 2002).
hydrogen for energy storage system is an attractive option which is
surplus electric power that is obtained from a photovoltaic panel that
moves to an electrolyser to generate hydrogen stored by water splitting
and then, the stored hydrogen gas is supplied to a fuel cell during
times of low or no sunlight to compensate the supply shortfalls (Linkous
2001; Ghosh et al. 2003; Satyapal et al. 2007; Winter 1987).
research has been done on the different components of solar-hydrogen
system for RAPS, namely the solar PV panel, electrolyser, hydrogen
storage and fuel cell (Bak et al. 2002; Larminie et al. 2003; Dicks 1996).
Shabaniet and Andrews considered the PEM fuel cells in experimental
investigation to supply heat and power in PAPS. The economic advantages
of using the fuel cell heat to improve the LPG hot water system over a
30-year appraisal period is estimated to be about 15 % of the total
capital cost of the solar hydrogen system. John Andrews and Xin Xu Dou
studied about designing a control unit for a solar-hydrogen system for
remote area power supply in 2010 in Australia, and they found that all
requirements started earlier will be carried into the simulation
(Matlab) to establish the best control algorithms. When they designed
the optimum control, system was tested in computer. The experience
system was designed to measured real performance.
overview of experimental and demonstration systems are described in the
literature. However, there is still a need for more work on the general
control unit for these systems as well as reducing the total cost of the
system, extending the lifespan of components, and safety assurance.
Some research investigations have been done on design and test of
preferred options for splitting the Photovoltaic output between final
load and electrolyser as needed by the instantaneous system conditions,
as well as achieve high power transmission efficiency to the combined
final load and electrolyser. Figure 1
shows that solar cells absorb light from the sun. Then, they transfer
it to the electrolyzer in order to split water into hydrogen and oxygen
(van de Krol et al. 2008).
Fig. 1
Solar cell inserts electric to the electrolyzer
this paper, we consider solar hydrogen literature. Since, hydrogen is a
relatively broad term, it can refer to a number of different
technologies, processes, and methods. It has many applications related
to energy, smart grid, energy management, energy policy,
telecommunications, and business. For this reason, hydrogen applications
can be the foundation for many location-enabled services that rely on
analysis, visualization and dissemination of results for collaborative
decision-making. The aims of this paper is to analysis qualities and
quantities of the researches done during the last two decade.

Methodology and materials

documents used in this study were accessed from the database of the
Science Citation Index (SCI), obtained by subscription from the ISI, Web
of Science, Philadelphia, PA, USA. In this study, we only focus on
papers published after 2001, because there was less data regarding solar
hydrogen before that year. To shed the light on solar hydrogen trends
and contributions, quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis are
conducted in this research.

Quantitative analysis

the quantitative analysis, the SCI are systematically searched for
solar hydrogen-related materials published from 2001 to April 2014.
Selected documents included ‘‘Solar hydrogen generation’’ in the title,
abstract, or keywords. Analyzed parameters included authorship, patterns
of international collaboration, journal, language, document type,
research address, number of times cited, and reprint author’s address.
Citation analysis was based primarily on the impact factor as defined by
the journal citation reports (JCR) and on citations per publications
(CPP), which are used to assess the impact of a journal relative to the
entire field. It is defined as the ratio of the number of citations the
publication has received to since it is published.

Qualitative analysis

qualitative analysis the historical method was used. The historical
method proposes that historical phenomena can be rich and complex; we
can gain a better understanding by reviewing and investigating the
times, places and contexts in which events occur and develop. The
historical method was employed in investigating the initiation and
development of solar hydrogen as documented in publications in the SCI
from 2001 to April 2014. For a longitudinal literature review, we
employed historical review method to explore solar hydrogen
technological trend. Based on this review, we forecast possible future

Result and discussion

Number of publication and citation among year

According to the data obtained from ISI Web of Knowledge as presented in Fig. 2, it shows the number of publications about solar hydrogen generation in a period of 15 years. From the Fig. 2,
it is concluded that the research about this topic have just been
published from 2000. Therefore, it is observed that research in solar
hydrogen is extensively new topic. In addition, there were fewer than
six paper published before 2006 and only after 2008 this research became
a hot topic among researchers. Obviously, in 2013 there was rapid
increase in number of publications and citations. Although in 2008 the
number of publications was fewer than 2007, however, the citation trend
shown in Fig. 3
indicates that the number of citations is very close to the one in
2007. Thus, the promising future of solar hydrogen is guaranteed.
Fig. 2
Number of paper published among year is displays
Fig. 3
Number of citation among year is displays
total citation count was obtained from SCI, web of science, on April
20, 2014. When the SCI search process for this study was conducted, the
total number of times that a particular paper had been cited by all
journals listed in the database was shown. The title of the most highly
cited paper published in this area since 2001 is “Estimating
Photo-electrochemical hydrogen generation”. Materials-related aspects by
Bak, T, received by International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2002,
which has been cited for 549 times. Among the top ten most cited papers,
the USA contributed 4 of them, followed by Australia, which produced
two articles and China, Armenia, Switzerland and Israel with one
articles each. It is worth mentioning that papers related to Energy had a
relatively higher number of citations than many other scientific
fields. Nevertheless, there still exist a biasness on citation analysis
due to differences of the publication year. It must be pointed out that
the number of citations in single article was highly correlated with the
length of time since its publication. As it can be seen in Fig. 3,
the average number of times that the paper receives citations increases
as the time goes on since its publication. Therefore, average number of
citation per year was used to compare the papers in different years.
From 2005 to 2014, the annual number of Citation articles according to Fig. 4 the scatter plot was growing at a stable rate. The fit produced a high determination coefficient from the collected data (R2 = 0.8717). The best fit to forecast solar hydrogen generation was found to be:
y = 37.868x - 75861
Where y is the article number and x
is the number of years since 2001. Extrapolating from the model, the
number of articles about forest ecology in the following years could be

Fig. 4
Scatter plot for solar hydrogen citation are displays

Distribution by source titles, research area and web of science categories

According to Table 1,
most of the papers in this field are published in International Journal
of Hydrogen Energy, which has ranked 16 in categories of energy fuel,
with 32 papers. Following by abstracts the best publisher in field is
American Chemical Society with nine papers. According to the fourth
column of Table 1, Energy fuel with 73 papers, followed by Chemistry with 70 and electrochemistry with 41 are the three best categories.
Table 1
Distribution by source titles and Research area
to distribution by web of science categories, Energy fuel, chemistry,
and electrochemistry are the three categories, which publish most of the
papers, followed by chemistry and material. Figure 5, shows more than 70 % of those papers published in those three categories.
Fig. 5
Distribution by web of science categories

Top ten papers in solar hydrogen generation

The most frequently cited articles for the period between 2003 and 2014 are presented in Table 2.
Five of the most frequently cited articles were published in
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Six of the most frequently
cited articles (among them the top six listings) originated in the USA
and Australia, and one each in, China, Armenia, Switzerland, and Israel
respectively. The two articles with the most citations (549 and 135)
come from International Journal of Hydrogen Energy and Nano letter. An
interesting aspect, presented as the fourth column in Table 2,
is the average number of citations per year (AC). Although this
observation is not consistent, it appears that the number of citations
per year tends to increase with the number of years since publication.
Pointing to a possible snowball effect when it comes to the acceptance
of novel research results published papers involved international
collaborations. A summary of the ten most frequently cited articles
revealed that six papers originated in the United States, and four were
published in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, which has one of
the highest impact factors in the category of energy. The three journals
with the most articles in this category were Solar Energy, Energy and
Environmental Science and Journal of Power Sources.
Table 2
Top high citation papers in field solar hydrogen generation

Distribution by document type and language

majority of publications on solar hydrogen generation research is done
in English. One interesting finding is the increase in solar hydrogen
generation research since 2010; it is clear that Solar Hydrogen
Generation or Solar Hydrogen Power study is becoming ever more important
around world. According to Fig. 6,
it is clear more than 97 (68 %) of papers published is articles,
followed by 35 (24.8 %) proceedings paper, abstract with 6 %, amd review
with 2 %.
Fig. 6
Type of document in ISI web of knowledge

Distribution by countries and organization

Table 3
shows USA is at the top with 42 (20.20 %), followed by China, with 16
(15.33 %). Australia ranks third, with 13 (6.13 %). Germany, India,
Japan, Spain, England, South Korea and Switzerland, were also among the
top ten countries publishing solar hydrogen generation articles. Listing
publications by organization name, in third column Table 3,
shows that the United States Department Of Energy Doe With 10 articles,
University of California System with seven articles, at the top
institution, followed by Chinese Academy Of Sciences, Royal Melbourne
Institute Of Technology RMIT, are the top four solar hydrogen research
institutions that have published the most articles on solar hydrogen
power during 2001–2014.
Table 3
Distribution by country/territory and institution name

Distribution by author, frequency author keyword and funding agencies

According to the Table 4,
there are 67 authors in the world who participated in publications
related to solar hydrogen generation research area. The first 10 authors
are listed in Table 4
with the number of publication in this area. Prof, Roeb and Sattler
with six publication in solar hydrogen generation from Germany has most
of the papers, following by Andrews from Australia with five papers.
Behind them kanmani, Li Y and Licht are the five top author in this
Table 4
Top ten author and funding agencies in solar hydrogen generation
In the third column of Table 4,
it is shown that the top funding agencies which funded the
investigations on solar hydrogen generation. National Natural Science
Foundation Of China with 8 papers is the first among funding agencies
followed by NSF with five paper is ranked second, and Natural Basic
Science Program China with three papers are the top three funding
agencies in field of solar hydrogen.
In Table 5,
author keywords that appeared in the articles from 2001 to 2014 were
counted with intervals of 5 years. Among all 107-author keywords used,
72 (71 %) keywords appeared only once, 23 (21 %) keywords were used
twice, and 8 (7 %) keywords appeared three times. The large number of
one-time-used keywords probably indicates a lack of continuity in
research and a wide disparity in research focuses. The most frequently
used keyword for all periods was “Solar hydrogen” as it was also a
keyword used in this research. During the entire study period, Hydrogen,
Solar energy and Water splitting are always the most frequently used
author keywords, which indicates that these title are invariable
hotspots in the field of solar hydrogen production research.
Furthermore, it is worth noticing that limited research has been done
before on Photocatalysis, Hydrogen production, and PEM electrolyser.
However articles on these aspects have obviously increased in recent
years. The number of papers and percentage of which author keywords
including solar hydrogen and hydrogen etc.
Table 5
Frequency keyword by author
indicates that ‘information systems attracted more and more attention
during the past 14 years, indicating that these words may be a potential
new focus in the future. On the contrary, it is surprising to find that
there are several popular titles in the past such as Photocatalysis
etc. that are becoming gradually less significant as noted during our
10-year study period.

Review the first 10 top papers in field of solar hydrogen generation

to Table 6 (see Online Supplement), there are four papers that try to
improve efficiency of photo-electrochemical cells by using different
material type, three researches on control current and voltage to get
maximum power and other papers review the researches done in this field.
The result of these 10 top paper shows that in order to improve
efficiency of the generation, materials and control the losses on the
process must be up to dated. One of the interesting paper, which
published in 2008, consider solar hydrogen generation for vehicles with
total citation 56 and average citation eight for each year, which
published in USA and number of citation each year dramatically increase.
In first column Table 6 (see Online Supplement), it is show that 6
paper of 10 top paper published after 2006, in other word, it is clear
how this topic become hot topic in this area.


this work on solar hydrogen -related papers dealing with the SCI, we
obtained some significant points on the global research performance
throughout the period from 2001 to 2014. In total, 4681 articles were
published in 1918 journals listed in 202 subject categories established
by ISI. The solar hydrogen generation presented an upward trend as the
paper production increased exponentially in the last 14 years, and the
annual paper production in 2013 was about three times that of the paper
production in 2010. As the flagship journal of the solar hydrogen
generation related field, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
published the most articles. Approximately 22 % of the articles that
refer to solar hydrogen generation reside in the 10 core journals,
whereby the remainder resides in the other 1908 journals. With the study
of national research publications in the last 15 years, the increasing
trend in the number of countries worldwide participating in this
research can be easily observed. To a certain extent, large numbers of
research papers from a country are correlated with the high activity and
academic level of the country. It was notable that USA and China,
contributing the most independent and international collaborative
articles, had the most frequent international partners. Articles with
international co-authorship, shows higher visibility than others over
the years. The use of several author keywords such as ‘solar hydrogen,
‘hydrogen ‘and ‘solar energy dramatically increased since 2007, which
became the focus in the last few years, and might be a new research
direction in the future. There are clear distinctions among author
keywords used in publications from the five most productive countries in
solar hydrogen research. Quantitative and qualitative analysis used to
the development of global scientific production in a specific research
field. As solar hydrogen generation has always been thought to be widely
useful to energy saving, more efforts should be taken to further
studies in these fields.

Electronic supplementary material


authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this work that
provided by University Putra Malaysia. I wish to thank Dr. Mahmmod
Danaei for comments that helped to improve the manuscript, and for
helping to search the literature.


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  • Wang H, et al. Self-biased solar-microbial device for sustainable hydrogen generation. ACS Nano. 2013;7(10):8728–8735. doi: 10.1021/nn403082m. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  • Winter C-J. Hydrogen energy—expected engineering breakthroughs. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 1987;12(8):521–546. doi: 10.1016/0360-3199(87)90012-7. [Cross Ref]
  • Xiong
    L, Kannan A, Manthiram A. Pt–M (M = Fe Co, Ni and Cu) electrocatalysts
    synthesized by an aqueous route for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
    Electrochemistry Communications. 2002;4(11):898–903. doi: 10.1016/S1388-2481(02)00485-X. [Cross Ref]
  • Z’graggen
    A, et al. Hydrogen production by steam-gasification of petroleum coke
    using concentrated solar power—II Reactor design, testing, and modeling.
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2006;31(6):797–811. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2005.06.011. [Cross Ref]
  • Z’graggen
    A, et al. Hydrogen production by steam-gasification of petroleum coke
    using concentrated solar power—III. Reactor experimentation with slurry
    feeding. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2007;32(8):992–996. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.10.001. [Cross Ref]
  • Zhang Y-HP, et al. High-yield hydrogen production from starch and water by a synthetic enzymatic pathway. PLoS ONE. 2007;2(5):e456. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000456. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of solar hydrogen generation literature from 2001 to 2014

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