Tuesday, 12 August 2014

How to make your paper more accessible through self-archiving | Editage Insights

 Source: http://www.editage.com/insights/how-to-make-your-paper-more-accessible-through-self-archiving

How to make your paper more accessible through self-archiving

you’ve completed your study and published your paper in the journal of
your choice. Now you want to make your paper accessible to more and more
readers within and outside the scientific community so as to increase
its impact. One way to increase the visibility of your paper is through

What is self-archiving?
is the practice of placing digital versions of scientific literature
online. When you self-archive your research, you make it freely
available to anyone on the Internet. In other words, self-archiving
makes your research widely “visible, accessible, harvestable,
searchable, and useable,”1 thus increasing its reach and impact, and possibly the number of citations it receives.
Benefits of Self-Archiving

Where does self-archiving fit in the publishing process?
the figure below shows, you can self-archive different versions of your
research paper: (a) the version before peer review, called the
“pre-print,” and (b) the version that has been peer reviewed and
accepted for publication, called the “refereed post-print.” All versions
of papers made available online are referred to as “e-prints.”

Figure: Stages when manuscripts may be self-archived (adapted5)
Stages when manuscripts may be self-archived

Where can you self-archive? 
Research articles can be self-archived in repositories, which are electronic archives, or on personal servers.6
Institutional repositories: Many
universities and research institutions own repositories where all their
members can deposit their research papers. This enables researchers
from that institution to view each other’s work and gives anyone
interested a broad view of all work being conducted through that
Subject-based repositories: Some archives are subject-area specific and tend to be very popular in their respective disciplines, for example, PubMed for biomedical studies; RePEc for economics; and arXiv most popularly for physics, mathematics, and computer science.
Personal servers or profile pages: Researchers can upload their work onto their own web pages. Further, some social networking sites for researchers, like ResearchGate , have sections dedicated to uploaded publications. 
Copyright issues related to self-archiving

  • Self-archiving
    the pre-print version of your article does not infringe any copyright
    agreement since it is done prior to submission to the publisher. Hence,
    it is not a legal matter. Sometimes, though increasingly rarely,
    journals might disallow self-archiving pre-prints, which is a matter of
    journal policy and not copyright. There tend to be some discipline-based
    differences here, with self-archiving being a common and accepted
    practice in the physical sciences (physics, computer science, etc.), but
    not so much so in the biomedical sciences.
  • On
    the other hand, the copyrights of refereed post-prints usually belong
    to the journal, and self-archiving these can lead to a legal breach if
    the journal’s policy is not followed. Journals/publishers have different
    copyright policies with regard to self-archiving post-prints. The table
    below shows the differing policies of some popular publishers with
    respect to self-archiving.7
     Most publishers allow self-archiving of some sort, but remember to check your journal/publishers policy before self-archiving.

Why is self-archiving not widely done? 

self-archiving carries such benefits, why is it not widely prevalent?
Here are some of the reasons for this and counter arguments in support
of self-archiving

  1. Lack of awareness of its benefits: A
    large proportion of authors are unaware of the option of self-archiving
    and its benefits. Therefore, even if the authors’ institutions have
    repositories, authors themselves don’t bother with self-archiving unless
    their institutions mandate it.

  2. Concern about the quality of self-archived articles: In
    some fields of study, such as computer science, pre-prints are archived
    much more than post-prints. Self-archiving pre-prints allows for
    research to be scrutinized by the larger scientific community before it
    goes through peer review. Further, in all archiving repositories,
    pre-prints are clearly marked as such. As for post-prints, their quality
    need not be questioned because they are merely a copy of the journal’s
    peer-reviewed published version.

  3. Fear of infringing the journal’s copyright policies: Most
    journals, in their instructions for authors, clearly state their
    copyright policies with regard to self-archiving. As long as you read
    and understand these policies, most of which allow authors to
    self-archive, you do not risk infringing any agreements.

  4. Perception that self-archiving is time consuming and cumbersome: Contrary to this belief, self-archiving takes only about 10 minutes9 for the first paper when you have to create a profile/account, and only a small percentage of people find it “very difficult.”8 For all subsequent papers, the process is even easier and faster.
  5. Fear of disrupting the current scholarly publishing model: Institutions
    may refrain from creating repositories for fear that such archives may
    be seen as a substitute for journals. However, in a previous study8,
    two major publishers in physics—the American Physical Society (APS) and
    the Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd. (IOPP)—confirmed that the
    physics pre-print server axXiv did not in any way threaten their own
    business models. Thus, publishers and self-archiving servers may well be
    able to coexist peacefully.

The role of self-archiving in open access 

constitutes what is called the “green route” to open access. This means
that authors can make their research papers available and readers can
access them—both free of cost. This is different from publishing in an
open access journal, such as Public Library of Science (PLOS)
publications, where authors pay the journal a publication fee, after
which the published study is made available to the public for free—a
model known as the “gold route” to open access. It is important to note
that self-archiving “is not an alternative to publishing in learned
journals, but an adjunct, a complementary activity where an author
publishes his or her article in whatever journal s/he chooses and simply
self-archives a copy.”5

Future of article access 

published in subscription journals are usually accessible only to
researchers whose institutional libraries have subscriptions to those
journals. Researchers affiliated to smaller institutions that cannot
afford extensive journal subscriptions would not be able to access these
papers. Moreover, the chances of such research reaching a wider
audience of lay people and experts in unrelated fields are slim. Today,
the world is 
moving toward a system where the intellectual output of the research
community can be freely disseminated to the world at large. New journals
adopting the gold route of open access, that is, with an
article-processing charge for authors, are emerging, and even
traditional publishers that work with a subscription fee-based model are
offering more open access options. Funding bodies are encouraging
scientists to embrace the concept of allowing free access to published
literature. For example, Research Councils UK (RCUK) has recently
announced a policy stating that from April 2013, all science papers that
have received funding from grant agencies affiliated to RCUK must be
made freely available within six months of publication.10 Public
institutions like the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate
that all articles arising from NIH funds be archived in PubMed upon
acceptance for publication. For a substantial number of journals, the
NIH public access policy requires that the final published version of
all NIH-funded research articles be made available on PubMed Central not
later than 12 months after publication.11 Newer models of open access are also being explored. 



sum, self-archiving is free, easy, and immensely beneficial. Moreover,
it is in line with the noble evolving trend of free widespread
dissemination of research findings for rapid global advancement of
science. So go ahead and consider self-archiving a viable option to
contribute to the progress of science and to increase your own research
impact by making your work more accessible.

How to make your paper more accessible through self-archiving | Editage Insights

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